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Thursday, November 17, 2011

Hey Everyone this is a list of Directed Energy Weapons and a few over things. Please know I am putting this up for everyone to see that what I have been saying is true. This not the full information about the subjects. But It is something that a person can use to say that what they are feeling. Can because by a Weapon of War. Electromagnetic Microwave Ionizing Radiation Auditory Weapon.
This is just a sort list. I just wanted and thought that it would be a good read for someone.

Later on I am going to show some more medical records on how Electromagnetic Directed Energy Weapon can affect a person internal Sphincter Muscle that is apart of three main organs in your body that the perpetrators clause to tighten in and up on a person and not allow them to urinate, digest. or breath. There are three Sphincter Muscles in your body that can be tighten in to stop you from breathing, Urinating, and having bowel moments.They do this to make the victims body become toxic and easier for them to kill the victim this way because it makes the person death look natural and cause certain things to happen in the victims body.
I will show you more on this later but take a look at all the Direct Energy Weapons that are being used today. This was all declassified in 2008 by the Department of Defense .    


1)Directed Energy Weapons
2)Defense Science Board Task Force on Directed Energy Weapons 
3)Conflict Without Casualties: Non-Lethal Weapons in Irregular Warfare Electronic Combat in 4)Space: Examining the Legality of Fielding a Space-Based Disruptive Electromagnetic Jamming System 
5)It is Called a Weapon for a Reason: The Need for Non-Lethal Weapon Specific Rules of Engagement
6)Non-Lethal Weapons: Considerations for the Joint Force Commander 
7)Information Operations, Electronic Warfare, and Cyberwar: Capabilities and Related Policy Issues 

8)The Use of Air Power for Maritime Homeland Defense
9)Army Science and Technology Analysis for Stabilization and Reconstruction Operations

10)Effectiveness of Non-Lethal Capabilities in a Maritime Environment 
11)An Exploration of Equipping a Future Force Warrior Small Combat Unit with Non-Lethal Weapons 
12)Are the Department of Defense Non-Lethal Weapon Capabilities Adequate for the 21st Century 
13)Interdisciplinary Research Project to Explore the Potential for Developing Non-Lethal Weapons Based on Radiofrequency/Microwave Bio effects 
14)Human Performance Modeling Presentation/Brief                                                                            
15)Effects of Facial Topography and Eyewear on the 94 GHz Beam 
16)Air Force Operations in Urban Environments. Volume 1: Executive Summary and Annotated Brief
17)Modeling Sound as a Non-Lethal Weapon in the COMBAT(XXI) Simulation Model
18)The Limited Utility of Non-Lethal Weapons in Decisive Combat: War Still Means Fighting and Fighting Still Means Killing 
19)Non-Lethal Weapons and Evolving Fundamentals of 21st Century Warfare 
20)Phases III AND IV: A Dangerous Overlap
21)Killing Them Softly: At War with Children
22) Human Effectiveness and Risk Characterization of the Electromuscular Incapacitation Device - A Limited Analysis of the TASER. Part 2. Appendices 
23) Airpower's Emasculation? -- Non-lethal Weapons in Joint Urban Operations
24) The Operational Aspect of Nonlethal Weapons; More Than Just a Tactical Capability
25)Operational Planning Considerations for the Use of Riot Control Agents in Military Operations Other Than War 
26)Weapons: A Report on the Industry 
27)Non-Lethal Weapons: Opportunities for R&D 
28)Non-Lethal Weapons and Future Peace Enforcement Operations (Les armes non letales dans les operations d'imposition de la paix) 
29)Free Fall Experimental Data for Non-Lethal Artillery Projectile Parts
30) Transforming How We Fight Through Effects-Based Operations and Non-Lethal Capabilities 
31)Weapons: A Report on the Industry 2004
32)A Health Hazard Assessment for Blast Over pressure Exposures
33)Exploring New Concepts for Joint Urban Operations
34)Non-Lethal Weapons: Setting Our Phasers on Stun? Potential Stratetgic Blessings and Curses of Non-Lethal Weapons on the Battlefield 
35)Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Discriminate Use of Force
36) Evaluating the U.S. Military's Development of Strategic and Operational Doctrine for Non-Lethal Weapons in a Complex Security Environment
37)An Evaluation of the Electrical Properties and Bio-Behavioral Effects of Four Commercially Available Tasers and the JAYCOR Sticky Shocker 
38)Alternatives to Anti-Personnel Landmines (Solutions de remplacement aux mines antipersonnel
39)Non-Lethal Chemical Weapons 
40)Taser Area Denial Device: A Human Effects Review 


ADA478165 

Directed Energy Weapons 
Descriptive Note: Final rept.
Personal Author(s): Welch, Larry , Hermann, Robert
Report Date: Dec 2007
Media Count: 96   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *GUIDED MISSILES, *AIRBORNE, *ENERGY, *CHEMICAL LASERS, *RADIOFREQUENCY POWER, SOLID STATE LASERS, CONTROL, GROUND LEVEL, POWER LEVELS, UNCERTAINTY, REDUCTION, TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMARS, DIRECTIONAL, PERIODICALS, GAME THEORY, DIRECTED ENERGY WEAPONS, GROUND BASED, BUDGETS, PLATFORMS, HIGH ENERGY, NONLETHAL WEAPONS, MICROWAVE EQUIPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE, DEFENSE SYSTEMS, INVESTMENTS, COMMUNITIES, BOOST PHASE, SPACE ENVIRONMENTS
Abstract: (U) Directed energy continues to offer promise as a transformational "game changer" as the Department of Defense (DOD) encounters new asymmetric and disruptive threats, while facing increasingly sophisticated traditional challenges. Yet years of investment have not resulted in any current operational high-energy laser capability. In addition, the single high-energy laser program of record, the Airborne Laser (ABL) for boost phase missile defense, continues to experience delays and potential budget reductions. There is a strong belief in the directed energy community, and in segments of the warfighter and force-provider communities, that high- power microwave (HPM) offers capabilities in anti-sensor applications and as non-lethal weapons. Still, HPM advancement has been limited by uncertainty about its effects and effectiveness. Years of major investment in chemical lasers has produced megawatt-class systems that could have a wide range of applications. However, size, weight, and logistics issues limit them to integration on large platforms, such as the 747 used for the ABL program, or fixed ground applications such as the Ground-Based Laser for Space Control. As a consequence, interest in these systems and expectations of progress has significantly decreased. The current focus is on solid state lasers with the promise of providing for smaller, lighter systems with deep magazines. However, the current goal for solid state laser development would provide a power level more than an order of magnitude lower than current chemical lasers. While beam quality and other factors can compensate for some of the difference in power level, there is currently little investment in those aspects. Further, these cannot make up the delta in power of chemical vs. solid state lasers. The near-term projection for solid state lasers is a power level closer to two orders of magnitude below that of chemical lasers.



ADA476320 
Defense Science Board Task Force on Directed Energy Weapons 

Descriptive Note: Final rept.
Personal Author(s): Schneider, Jr, William
Report Date: Dec 2007
Media Count: 98   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *SOLID STATE LASERS, *HIGH ENERGY LASERS, *CHEMICAL LASERS, *DIRECTED ENERGY WEAPONS, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, GUIDED MISSILES, UNCERTAINTY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE, DEFENSE SYSTEMS, FEDERAL BUDGETS, LOGISTICS, BOOST PHASE, THREATS, OPERATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS, HIGH ENERGY, INTEGRATION
Identifiers: (U) *AIRBORNE LASERS, *HIGH POWER MICROWAVES, ANTI-SENSOR APPLICATIONS, WARFIGHTERS, BOOST PHASE MISSILE DEFENSE, BUDGET REDUCTIONS
Abstract: (U) Directed energy continues to offer promise as a transformational game changer as the Department of Defense (DOD) encounters new asymmetric and disruptive threats, while facing increasingly sophisticated traditional challenges. Yet years of investment have not resulted in any currently operational high-energy laser capability. In addition, the single high-energy laser program of record, the Airborne Laser (ABL) for boost phase missile defense, continues to experience delays and potential budget reductions. There is a strong belief in the directed energy community, and in segments of the warfighter and force-provider communities, that highpower microwave (HPM) offers capabilities in anti-sensor applications and as non-lethal weapons. Still, HPM advancement has been limited by uncertainty about its effects and effectiveness. Years of major investment in chemical lasers has produced megawatt-class systems that could have a wide range of applications. However, size, weight, and logistics issues limit them to integration on large platforms, such as the 747 used for the ABL program, or fixed ground applications such as the Ground-Based Laser for Space Control. As a consequence, interest in these systems and expectations of progress has significantly decreased. The current focus is on solid state lasers with the promise of providing for smaller, lighter systems with deep magazines. However, the current goal for solid state laser development would provide a power level more than an order of magnitude lower than current chemical lasers. While beam quality and other factors can compensate for some of the difference in power level, there is currently little investment in those aspects. Further, these cannot make up the delta in power of chemical vs. solid state lasers. The near-term projection for solid state lasers is a power level closer to two orders of magnitude below that of chemical lasers.

ADA474466 
Conflict Without Casualties: Non-Lethal Weapons in Irregular Warfare 

Descriptive Note: Master's thesis
Personal Author(s): Scott, Richard L
Report Date: Sep 2007
Media Count: 93   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *UNCONVENTIONAL WARFARE, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, MILITARY FORCES(UNITED STATES), MILITARY OPERATIONS, COUNTERINSURGENCY, GUERRILLA WARFARE, THESES, CASUALTIES
Identifiers: (U) *IRREGULAR WARFARE
Abstract: (U) In this thesis I show that the casualties associated with warfare can be largely avoided. This includes combatant casualties, as well as noncombatant and friendly forces. The U.S. military is frequently tasked with deploying into foreign countries and performing duties that range from conventional combat operations to humanitarian relief and training host nationals. The politics of every deployment are complicated and invariably there will be some resistance, both domestically and internationally. People may feel victimized or marginalized and may demonstrate with protests, both peaceful and violent. How, then, may the use of non-lethal force be best applied in hostile situations in lieu of the "shout or shoot" approach commonly associated with military operations? Scientific advances in non-lethal technology may serve to curb violence while still allowing Soldiers and Marines to accomplish their missions.

ADA475297
Two Crowd Control Case Studies 

Descriptive Note: Technical note
Personal Author(s): Desai, Soni , Taylor, Ivan
Report Date: Aug 2007
Media Count: 24   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *BEHAVIOR, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, CONTROL, LESSONS LEARNED, MODELS, PERSONNEL DETECTORS, CANADA, CASE STUDIES, EXTRACTION
Identifiers: (U) CROWD BEHAVIOR, CROWD CONTROL, FOREIGN REPORTS
Abstract: (U) The Operational Research (OR) Team in Defence Research Development Canada (DRDC) Valcartier has begun work on a research project on modeling and simulating of crowd behaviour. This technical note reports on two crowd behaviour case studies. The intent of this report is twofold: the data collected on these two case studies will be utilized by the researchers to validate a crowd behavior/control model; and the lessons learned from gathering and extracting data can be utilized by researchers at a later date when other crowd behaviour case studies are completed.

ADA471399 
Electronic Combat in Space: Examining the Legality of Fielding a Space-Based Disruptive Electromagnetic Jamming System 

Descriptive Note: Master's thesis
Personal Author(s): Schendzielos, Kurt M
Report Date: 15 Jun 2007
Media Count: 106   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *POLICIES, *UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT, *MILITARY APPLICATIONS, *LEGISLATION, *INTERNATIONAL LAW, *ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE, *JAMMING, SPACE SYSTEMS, NONLETHAL WEAPONS, OUTER SPACE, ATTACK, TREATIES, SPACE WEAPONS, SPACE BASED, UNITED NATIONS, THESES
Identifiers: (U) *SPACE-BASED SYSTEMS, *ELECTROMAGNETIC JAMMING, INTERNATIONAL POLICIES, LEGAL ISSUES, SPACE LAW, SPACE POLICIES, ELECTRONIC ATTACK, SPACE TREATIES, PEACEFUL USE OF SPACE, LEGAL PROHIBITIONS, POLITICAL PROHIBITIONS, LEGAL ANALYSIS
Abstract: (U) Significant debate surrounds the concept of "peaceful use of space" as it is delineated in various international treaties and in United States Space Policy. The U.S. interpretation of that concept allows for military space applications. Within this context, the author explores the following question: What are the legal limits concerning the fielding of a nonlethal electronic countermeasures capability in space? The potentially aggressive yet nonpersistent effect of electromagnetic jamming (EM jamming) blurs the lines between military support and military weapons. This thesis examines the various international and domestic treaties, laws, and policies to determine whether restrictions to fielding EM jamming in space exist. Other topics that are examined are as follows: What is the majority interpretation of "peaceful use of space"?; Where does outer space begin?; What is a weapon?; Does EM jamming qualify as a weapon?; and, Are all weapons prohibited from being placed in space? A legal determination regarding the fielding of a space-based EM jamming system is a necessary step towards developing and employing such a capability for the U.S. military.

ADA470781 
It is Called a Weapon for a Reason: The Need for Non-Lethal Weapon Specific Rules of Engagement

Descriptive Note: Final rept.
Personal Author(s): Partin, Eric S
Report Date: 10 May 2007
Media Count: 22   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, MILITARY FORCES(UNITED STATES), BATTLEFIELDS, MILITARY CAPABILITIES, MILITARY TACTICS
Identifiers: (U) ROE(RULES OF ENGAGEMENT)
Abstract: (U) Since the 1960's non-lethal weapon (NLW) technology has continued to grow and be slowly incorporated into the U.S. military arsenal. With further advances in technology more NLWs will enter the battle space. The variety of missions assigned to U.S. forces that are more suitable for NLWs has also increased. The need for operational planners to understand the capabilities and limitations of these weapons is paramount in developing sound and effective rules of engagement (ROE) for deployed troops. Troops must be trained on NLW specific ROE and those ROE must be continually evaluated to ensure their applicability to current conditions in the area of operations. Failing to provide NLW specific ROE can limit or prevent their use by deployed forces and lead to unnecessary casualties. The ROE for NLWs must also provide a seamless transition from non-lethal to lethal fires to ensure the safety of troops when required.

ADA470730 
Non-Lethal Weapons: Considerations for the Joint Force Commander

Descriptive Note: Research paper
Personal Author(s): Voetberg, Jeffrey W
Report Date: 10 May 2007
Media Count: 25   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *MILITARY FORCES(UNITED STATES), *ETHICS, *INTERNATIONAL LAW, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, *ASYMMETRIC WARFARE, *URBAN WARFARE, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE, POLICIES, COLLATERAL DAMAGE, MASS MEDIA, PUBLIC OPINION, MILITARY COMMANDERS, MILITARY DOCTRINE, CONFLICT
Identifiers: (U) *ROE(RULES OF ENGAGEMENT), LAW OF ARMED CONFLICT, CONTROVERSY, IRREGULAR WARFARE, OBJECTIONS TO NONLETHAL WEAPONS, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS USE
Abstract: (U) The allure of non-lethal weapons has continued to grow and will only accelerate as the United States continues to confront complex irregular combat scenarios, often in urban environments. Despite their promise, numerous concerns about their development and use have been raised by persons both in and out of the military. While all the concerns deserve consideration, this paper discusses the issues raised primarily by people outside the military. The concerns raised need to be addressed by everyone in the non-lethal weapons community, from the most senior policy-makers to the most junior soldier employing them. The paper focuses on what the operational commander can do to attend to potential complaints against non-lethal weapons. It is the author's assertion that well-constructed Rules of Engagement (ROE) governing non-lethal weapons use can be issued by the Joint Forces Commander that ensure the accomplishment of military objectives, minimize collateral damage, including non-combatant fatalities, and assuage the objections raised to their use. He will propose some general guidelines for the operational-level planner to follow when developing ROE for the use of non-lethal weapons to minimize the concerns raised and to help ensure the legitimacy of both the weapons employed and the U.S. military.

ADA466599 
Information Operations, Electronic Warfare, and Cyberwar: Capabilities and Related Policy Issues 

Descriptive Note: Congressional rept.
Personal Author(s): Wilson, Clay
Report Date: 20 Mar 2007
Media Count: 18   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *ELECTRONIC WARFARE, *DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE, *POLICIES, *ELECTRONIC SECURITY, *PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS, *INFORMATION WARFARE, *MILITARY CAPABILITIES, TERRORISTS, PROTECTION, DECEPTION, CYBERTERRORISM, NONLETHAL WEAPONS, INFRASTRUCTURE, ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSES, PERCEPTION(PSYCHOLOGY), COMPUTER PERSONNEL, COMPUTER NETWORKS, CONGRESS, NATIONAL SECURITY, EDUCATION, COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS
Identifiers: (U) *INFORMATION OPERATIONS, *CYBERWARFARE, MILDEC(MILITARY DECEPTION), OPSEC(OPERATIONAL SECURITY), PSYOP(PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS), COMPUTER NETWORK OPERATIONS, ELECTROMAGNETIC WEAPONS, CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTION, AIR FORCE CYBER COMMAND, ELECTRONIC WARFARE EDUCATION, CYBERSECURITY
Abstract: (U) This report describes the emerging areas of information operations, electronic warfare, and cyberwar in the context of U.S. national security. It also suggests related policy issues of potential interest to Congress. For military planners, the control of information is critical to military success, and communications networks and computers are of vital operational importance. The use of technology to both control and disrupt the flow of information has been generally referred to by several names: information warfare, electronic warfare, cyberwar, netwar, and Information Operations (IO). Currently, IO activities are grouped by the Department of Defense (DoD) into five core capabilities: (1) Psychological Operations, (2) Military Deception, (3) Operational Security, (4) Computer Network Operations, and (5) Electronic Warfare. Current U.S. military doctrine for IO now places increased emphasis on Psychological Operations, Computer Network Operations, and Electronic Warfare, which includes the use of non-kinetic electromagnetic pulse (EMP) weapons, and nonlethal weapons for crowd control. However, as high technology is increasingly incorporated into military functions, the boundaries between all five IO core capabilities are becoming blurred. DoD has noted that military functions involving the electromagnetic spectrum take place in what is now called the cyber domain, similar to air, land, and sea. This cyber domain is the responsibility of the new Air Force Cyber Command and includes cyberwarfare, electronic warfare, and protection of U.S. critical infrastructure networks that support telecommunications systems, utilities, and transportation. This report will be updated to accommodate significant changes.

ADA462522 
The Use of Air Power for Maritime Homeland Defense 

Descriptive Note: Master's thesis
Personal Author(s): Grynkewich, Alexus G
Report Date: Dec 2006
Media Count: 111   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *DEFENSE SYSTEMS, *MILITARY PLANNING, *HOMELAND DEFENSE, *AIR POWER, AIRCRAFT, SKILLS, INTERDICTION, SURVEILLANCE, NONLETHAL WEAPONS, OCEAN SURVEILLANCE, OCEAN ENVIRONMENTS, SECURITY, THESES, PLATFORMS, LONG RANGE(DISTANCE)
Abstract: (U) This thesis uses a capabilities-based methodology to determine what gaps exist in the military's current ability to perform maritime homeland defense against unconventional and asymmetric opponents. This approach reveals that including joint air assets as part of the maritime defense force can significantly enhance protection of the homeland. In the short term, the military can use air power from each of the services for long-range maritime surveillance and interdiction. Additionally, using aircraft for maritime defense combat air patrol provides an effective and efficient last line of defense. Over the longer term, an investment in new technologies including non-lethal weapons and persistent surveillance platforms can make the joint force an even more effective guarantor of U.S. maritime security.

ADA462788 
Army Science and Technology Analysis for Stabilization and Reconstruction Operations 

Descriptive Note: Research paper
Personal Author(s): Chait, Richard , Sciarretta, Albert , Shorts, Dennis
Report Date: Oct 2006
Media Count: 63   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *STABILIZATION, *MILITARY CAPABILITIES, *ARMY OPERATIONS, *POSTWAR OPERATIONS, *OPERATIONS OTHER THAN WAR, *MILITARILY CRITICAL TECHNOLOGIES, *URBAN AREAS, COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION, INTELLIGENCE, LOGISTICS, NONLETHAL WEAPONS, SITUATIONAL AWARENESS, INFORMATION WARFARE, ARMORED VEHICLES, LANGUAGE TRANSLATION, DRONES, RESEARCH MANAGEMENT, ARMY TRAINING, TRACKING, SURVEYS
Identifiers: (U) *STABILIZATION AND RECONSTRUCTION OPERATIONS, *SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY CAPABILITIES, *CAPABILITY GAPS, NATION BUILDING, S&R(STABILIZATION AND RECONSTRUCTION), NEEDS ASSESSMENT, SRO(STABILITY AND RECONSTRUCTION OPERATIONS), TECHNOLOGY SHORTFALLS, CAPABILITY NEEDS, BATTLE COMMAND, FORCE PROTECTION, NONLETHAL CAPABILITIES, INFORMATION OPERATIONS, UAV(UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES), INTERVIEWS, S&T(SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY)
Abstract: (U) In the area of stabilization and reconstruction (S&R) operations, this study examines capability gaps and science and technology (S&T) needs and concludes that some areas require renewed emphasis. The Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research and Technology has been seeking to strengthen the technology base and research planning of Army S&T programs as they relate to S&R operations. By identifying capability gaps and, where appropriate, applying technological approaches to addressing those gaps, the Army should be better positioned to meet its increasingly S&R-focused mission requirements. To support the Army in this effort, the Center for Technology and National Security Policy (CTNSP) at National Defense University (NDU) undertook a study to assess the technological capability gaps in the U.S. Army's ability to conduct S&R operations. The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) through field surveys, interviews, and review of related studies, to identify the technological shortfalls most consistently cited in land force execution of phase IV operations; (2) with respect to these operations, to identify capability gaps and needs and assess them with specific focus on the issue of technology shortfalls; and (3) with the gap analysis in hand, to highlight technology opportunities for consideration by Army S&T leadership. This study is organized along 10 major categories of military capabilities: battle command, armored vehicles in urban environments, situational awareness (SA), intelligence, force protection, unmanned systems, nonlethal capabilities, information operations (IO), training and use of modeling and simulation, and logistics. Within each category, existing and forthcoming Army S&T programs are mapped against stated technology shortfalls and capability gaps. While the issues of technology shortfalls in military capabilities as a whole are important, the overriding orientation of this analysis is focused on S&R operations.

ADA457271 
Effectiveness of Non-Lethal Capabilities in a Maritime Environment 

Descriptive Note: Master's thesis
Personal Author(s): Sickinger, Lisa R
Report Date: Sep 2006
Media Count: 106   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *THREATS, *TARGET DISCRIMINATION, *NAVAL OPERATIONS, *NAVAL VESSELS(COMBATANT), *TACTICAL WARNING, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, *MILITARY TACTICS, COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION, COUNTERTERRORISM, DETERRENCE, MEASURES OF EFFECTIVENESS, PORTS(FACILITIES), SMALL SHIPS, MISSIONS, TARGET DETECTION, MILITARY CAPABILITIES, SECURITY, THESES
Identifiers: (U) *NONLETHAL CAPABILITIES, *MARITIME FORCE PROTECTION, *THREAT IDENTIFICATION, PORT SECURITY, AGENT-BASED MODELS, MULTI-AGENT SIMULATION, PYTHAGORAS COMPUTER PROGRAM, DATA FARMING, DISTRIBUTED SIMULATION, ACOUSTIC HAILING DEVICES, OPTICAL DAZZLERS, WARNING MUNITIONS, MARITIME SECURITY, TARGET IDENTIFICATION, HOSTILE TARGETS, NEUTRAL TARGETS, LOITERING TARGETS, SMALL VESSELS, NORFOLK(VIRGINIA)
Abstract: (U) The attack on the USS Cole within a civilian port, and the increased threat of pirating and terrorism on the high seas, underscore the immediate need for a maritime nonlethal capability. This research uses modeling and simulation to explore the requirements and tactical use of nonlethal capabilities in a maritime force protection mission. Specifically, a multi-agent simulation emulates a tactical-level mission in which a U.S. Navy vessel returning to Naval Station, Norfolk, VA, encounters a variety of maritime surface threats. Data farming is the method used to address the research questions by applying high-performance computing to the simulation model, with the intent of examining a wide range of possibilities and outcomes. The nonlethal capabilities are analyzed in their effectiveness to do the following: (1) determine intent, (2) deter inbound surface vessels, and (3) engage targets identified as hostile through the continuum of force.

ADA457706 
An Exploration of Equipping a Future Force Warrior Small Combat Unit with Non-Lethal Weapons 

Descriptive Note: Master's thesis
Personal Author(s): Wittwer, Larry N
Report Date: Jun 2006
Media Count: 134   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *MILITARY OPERATIONS, *COMBAT FORCES, *IFF SYSTEMS, *UNCONVENTIONAL WARFARE, *URBAN WARFARE, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, *COMBAT SIMULATION, SURVIVABILITY, VULNERABILITY, THESES, MEASURES OF EFFECTIVENESS, COLLATERAL DAMAGE, NONCOMBATANT, URBAN AREAS, TARGET DISCRIMINATION, CASUALTIES, CIVILIAN POPULATION, RANGE(DISTANCE), ARMY
Identifiers: (U) *URBAN OPERATIONS, NLW(NONLETHAL WEAPONS), FFW(FUTURE FORCE WARRIORS), SCU(SMALL COMBAT UNITS), ABS(AGENT-BASED SIMULATIONS), MULTI-AGENT SIMULATIONS, PYTHAGORAS COMPUTER PROGRAM, PROJECT ALBERT, NOLH(NEARLY ORTHOGONAL LATIN HYPERCUBE), TARGET IDENTIFICATION, SUICIDE BOMBERS, CIVILIAN CASUALTY REDUCTION, *COMBAT IDENTIFICATION, MOUT(MILITARY OPERATIONS IN URBAN TERRAIN)
Abstract: (U) The U.S. military has an increasing requirement to prepare for and conduct urban operations (UO). This UO requirement spreads across the spectrum of conflict, from high intensity combat to peacekeeping and humanitarian missions, often simultaneously. Regardless of which portion(s) of the warfare spectrum U.S. forces are involved in, urban engagements are inevitable and present significant challenges. Superior standoff weapons ranges and combined arms tactics are quickly negated in the confined terrain of the urban environment. Often considerably more challenging is differentiating the enemy from noncombatants. Conventional forces normally have two options: (1) the threat of a violent response (passive), or (2) the use of deadly force (active). These two extremes have virtually no middle ground. The reluctance of military and/or peacekeeping forces to employ deadly force on unconfirmed enemy targets can create a vulnerability. This vulnerability may be mitigated by equipping a small combat unit (SCU) with a viable alternative to deadly force -- nonlethal weapons (NLWs). Using an imperfect friend or foe identification modeling framework within an agent-based simulation (ABS), an NLW is used to interrogate (determine the intent of the person to identify friend or foe) rather than attempt to incapacitate a target. To determine the impacts of employing NLWs in an urban combat environment (with civilians on the battlefield), three factors were varied across 15 design points: the ability of U.S. military forces to positively identify a target, the range of the selected NLW, and the number of NLWs in an SCU. By replicating each design point and analyzing the resulting output data, the following insights were discovered: the use of NLWs does not degrade U.S. survivability; NLWs are essential to neutralizing suicide attacks; and NLWs decrease civilian casualties.

ADA448633 
Are the Department of Defense Non-Lethal Weapon Capabilities Adequate for the 21st Century

Descriptive Note: Research rept.
Personal Author(s): Underhill, Jeffery L
Report Date: 15 Mar 2006
Media Count: 19   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *POLICIES, *NATIONAL SECURITY, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE, DEFENSE SYSTEMS, NAVAL PERSONNEL, AIR FORCE PERSONNEL, JOINT MILITARY ACTIVITIES, MARINE CORPS PERSONNEL, INFRASTRUCTURE, MILITARY COMMANDERS, COVERT OPERATIONS, MILITARY CAPABILITIES, WEAPON SYSTEMS, ARMY PERSONNEL, UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT, GLOBAL
Identifiers: (U) STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT
Abstract: (U) In today's 21st century global security environment non-lethal weapons are essential to Joint Force Commanders capabilities. The current Department of Defense (DOD) non-lethal weapon capabilities attempt to provide flexible tailored and incremental options to avoid unintended consequences: non-combatant casualties and/or destruction to civilian equipment and infrastructure. However given the adaptive global security environment of the 21st century the ability of DOD to effectively and efficiently develop resource deploy and employ non-lethal weapon capabilities is debatable because: (1) There is no satisfactory national guidance or strategy that clearly defines or unmistakably outlines the importance of non-lethal weapons; (2) DOD does not have the appropriate Joint organizational hierarchy with adequate resources and processes to develop and procure non-lethal weapon capabilities; (3) DOD's institutional kinetic culture inhibits the development and procurement of non-lethal weapon capabilities. This project will review the lack of current national policy DOD structure and processes for non-lethal weapons while recommending solutions in cultural change to advance adaptable capabilities in today's volatile uncertain complex and ambiguous global security environment of the 21st century. Finally policy recommendations from this assessment will suggest enhancements to strike a suitable balance between lethal and non-lethal weapon capabilities for our soldiers marines airmen and sailors.

ADA443237
Interdisciplinary Research Project to Explore the Potential for Developing Non-Lethal Weapons Based on Radiofrequency/Microwave Bioeffects 

Descriptive Note: Final performance rept. 15 Mar 2004-14 Dec 2005
Personal Author(s): Craviso, Gale L, Chatterjee, Indira
Report Date: 31 Jan 2006
Media Count: 15   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *MICROWAVES, *RADIOFREQUENCY, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, EXPOSURE(GENERAL), NERVOUS SYSTEM, NUMERICAL METHODS AND PROCEDURES, NEUROTRANSMITTERS, TIME DOMAIN
Abstract: (U) Our research is to lay the foundation for developing non-lethal stunning/immobilizing weaponry based on radiofrequency (RF)/ microwave(MW) radiation by identifying RF/MW parameters potentially capable of selectively altering exocytosis, the process underlying neurotransmitter release and hence nervous system functioning. Major accomplishments included 1) assembling, characterizing and optimizing a free-space MW exposure system for assessing effects of exposures in the 1 to 6 GHz frequency range on exocytosis, using neurosecretory adrenal chromaffin cells as an in vitro model. Other accomplishments included implementing experimental approaches that wilt allow us to distinguish between non-thermal versus thermal effects of the exposures. The research was presented at one international meeting and has culminated in one manuscript that is under review. Personnel on the project included a neurobiologist and an electrical engineer as principal investigators, an associate engineer, one research assistant and two graduate students. The research has been transitioned into AFOSR grant FA9550-05-1-0308.

ADA444469 
Human Performance Modeling Presentation/Brief 

Descriptive Note: Interim rept. Oct 1998-Nov 2005
Personal Author(s): Young, Michael J
Report Date: Nov 2005
Media Count: 38   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *MODELS, *PERFORMANCE(HUMAN), SCENARIOS, INTEROPERABILITY, PERSONALITY, NONLETHAL WEAPONS, CULTURE, BEHAVIOR, SIMULATION, TEST BEDS
Identifiers: (U) CROWD MODELING, BRIEFING CHARTS, RULES OF ENGAGEMENT MODELS, PE63231F, WUAFRL49230400
Abstract: (U) Briefing charts and notes for presentation on Human Performance Modeling. Topics include: crowd modeling; rules of engagement simulation; non-lethal weapons modeling; cultural modeling testbed; recently transition projects.

ADA475216 
Effects of Facial Topography and Eyewear on the 94 GHz Beam 

Descriptive Note: Final technical rept. 2004-2005
Personal Author(s): Hatcher, Donald, Marchello, Donald, Cox, Duane, D'Andrea, John, Ziriax, John, Johnson, Leland, Kuhnel, Charles
Report Date: Nov 2005
Media Count: 22   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *MILLIMETER WAVES, *PARTICLE BEAMS, *PERSONNEL DETECTORS, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, HIGH POWER, HIGH RATE, MANAGEMENT, LIMITATIONS, ACCESS, NIGHT VISION DEVICES, POWER, ABSORPTION, FACE(ANATOMY), EYEGLASSES, BINOCULARS, AREA DENIAL, GOGGLES, EYE, HOT SPOTS, TRANSMITTERS, HEATING, PRODUCTION, EXPOSURE(GENERAL), WEAPON SYSTEMS
Identifiers: (U) *EYEWEAR, ADS(ACTIVE DENIAL SYSTEM), WUAFRL7757B348
Abstract: (U) Recently, a millimeter wave (MMW) hardware system, called Active Denial System (ADS) has been developed for use as a non-lethal weapon system. The ADS system is capable of generating high power MMWs and is to be used for, but not limited to, crowd management and denying access to restricted areas. ADS achieves this end by using a 94 GHz MMW beam to produce rapid skin heating to a temperature that causes intense discomfort in a very short period of time, normally in just a matter of seconds. The intensity of the discomforting sensation rapidly decreases when the power to the transmitter is turned off or the individual moves out of the MMW beam. The primary effect of the ADS is heating of skin and absorption of the 94GHz millimeter waves in the eye. Recently the effects that eyewear may have on the absorption of 94 GHz MMWs on the face have been questioned. To fully understand the effects of ADS through eyewear, exposure data must be collected while the targeted subject is wearing various types of eyewear, such as, eyeglasses, night vision goggles (NVG) and binoculars, that may be encountered when subjects are be exposed to the system. This investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects that various types of eyewear may have on absorption of the 94 GHz beam and especially the production of hotspots generated by reflections or focusing of the beam on the surface of the face.

ADA442221 
Air Force Operations in Urban Environments. Volume 1: Executive Summary and Annotated Brief 

Descriptive Note: Final rept. Jan 2004-Aug 2005
Report Date: 01 Aug 2005
Media Count: 73   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *AIR FORCE OPERATIONS, *URBAN AREAS, *URBAN WARFARE, MILITARY OPERATIONS, NONLETHAL WEAPONS, MOBILE, COMMAND AND CONTROL SYSTEMS, UNMANNED
Identifiers: (U) URBAN OPERATIONS, JUO(JOINT URBAN OPERATIONS), URBAN ATTACK, MODELING AND SIMULATION, SYSTEMS CONCEPTS AND INTEGRATION, NON-LETHAL WEAPONS, MOBILE NETWORKING, URBAN WEAPONS, MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, URBAN CONOPS, URBAN TRAINING, URBAN TTP, URBAN STRIKE
Abstract: (U) As cities increase in number and importance, the population of the world gravitates toward these centers of commerce, culture, and society. Correspondingly, the cities will also attract an increasing proportion of military operations. Our adversaries know the complex urban environments present extremely difficult challenges for armed forces that have traditionally focused on the direct engagement of forces in open-terrain. To be ready for the future, the Air Force must fully understand the future urban environments it will operate in and then prepare, train, and equip its forces for these challenges. This study addresses the challenge of developing more effective Air Force Operations in Urban Environments. The study was conducted in response to a request by the Secretary of the Air Force and the Air Force Chief of Staff. In response to their direction, the Urban Operations study team conducted an extensive set of visits to Air Force operating commands and key operations centers, and reviewed numerous briefings from Air Force, Joint, and coalition organizations concerning current operations, systems, and procedures, as well as proposed future system and process improvements. The assistance of these organizations was essential to the completion of our effort. It was their involvement that guided the study team toward the findings, concepts, conclusions, and recommendations that comprise this study. The study team greatly appreciates the cooperation of these organizations, and acknowledges the valuable contributions their efforts made to this study. 

ADA435642 
Modeling Sound as a Non-Lethal Weapon in the COMBAT(XXI) Simulation Model 

Descriptive Note: Master's thesis
Personal Author(s): Grimes, Joseph D
Report Date: Jun 2005
Media Count: 61   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *NONLETHAL AGENTS, *COMBAT SIMULATION, ALGORITHMS, ARMY PERSONNEL, ARMY TRAINING, MISSIONS, ACOUSTIC EQUIPMENT, MILITARY COMMANDERS, HEARING
Abstract: (U) Modeling and representing combat and individual soldiers is a complex task. Several factors influence combatant behavior. Using non-lethal methods has become one way for combatant commanders to accomplish their wartime mission. Current the Army and Marine Corps models are not capable of non-lethal weapon replication. The U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command Analysis Center (TRAC) Monterey California has funded a program of research related to individual combatant representation in modeling and simulation. Modeling non-lethal weapons was identified by TRAC-Monterey as important to better represent actual combat. This thesis use COMBAT(XXI), a high-resolution, closed-form, stochastic, analytical combat simulation, to replicate non-lethals and study the effects on individual combatants. Existing source code was modified to model the Long Range Acoustic Device (LRAD), the non-lethal platform chosen for this research. LRAD is an acoustic device designed to modify the behavior of personnel with a high intensity warning tone. Once the LRAD capability was developed, a scenario was developed to test the simulated effects of the device. A model was developed to accurately determine behaviors of individual combatants. It was concluded that the implementation of this new non-lethal capability in COMBAT(XXI) improved the model and created a more realistic representation of actual combat.

ADA463625 
The Limited Utility of Non-Lethal Weapons in Decisive Combat: War Still Means Fighting and Fighting Still Means Killing 

Descriptive Note: Final rept.
Personal Author(s): Pittman, Lee T
Report Date: 17 May 2005
Media Count: 24   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *COMBAT EFFECTIVENESS, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, MILITARY OPERATIONS, UNITED STATES, MISSIONS, POWER, LETHALITY, RISK, WARFARE
Abstract: (U) As the technology associated with Non-Lethal Weapons (NLWs) continues to mature there will be growing pressure to use NLWs in future combat operations. However, the use of NLWs in decisive combat operations provides little operational benefit and would likely increase overall risk to mission accomplishment. While the use of NLWs is appropriate at the lower end of the conflict spectrum, the use of NLWs in decisive combat operations would produce unrealistic expectations that the United States military will be unlikely to meet. Additionally, the temporary and reversible effects of NLWs will unnecessarily complicate combat operations, deplete friendly combat power and fail to convince the enemy that he is defeated. To mitigate these operational drawbacks, commanders must not convey the notion that NLWs can produce a bloodless victory within the context of decisive combat operations. The nature of war has not changed and will not change war will require lethal application of force. We must not be apologetic about our use of deadly force when the circumstances require it. We must prepare for the use of deadly force and promptly apply that lethal force in order to decisively defeat an adversary's capability and will to wage war.

ADA463343
Non-Lethal Weapons and Evolving Fundamentals of 21st Century Warfare 
Descriptive Note: Final rept.
Personal Author(s): Kuhn, James M
Report Date: 17 May 2005
Media Count: 26   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, SKILLS, ARMY PERSONNEL, MISSIONS, LETHALITY, AMBIGUITY, DEFENSE PLANNING
Abstract: (U) In complex contingency operations of the twenty-first century, the battlespace is riddled with mission ambiguity, extreme conditions, and determined enemies deeply embedded within the local population. To help guide soldiers through today s multi-faceted mission areas, the joint staff has introduced emerging fundamentals of warfare which include: end state, safeguarding the force, understanding, adaptability, and legitimacy. Non-lethal weapons are other vital tools available to the modern soldier, and bring with them a unique ability to bridge the distinct gap along the force application continuum. This research will demonstrate how selected Evolving Fundamentals of 21st Century Joint Warfare and Crisis Resolution apply exceedingly well to today's complex battlespace, how these fundamentals enable the operational-level employment of non-lethal weapons, and that lethal and nonlethal weapons, when used in a well planned and synchronized fashion, represent an essential tool in the operational commander s toolbox.

ADA463394
Phases III AND IV: A Dangerous Overlap 

Descriptive Note: Final paper
Personal Author(s): Bowe, Joseph
Report Date: 17 May 2005
Media Count: 27   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *TRANSITIONS, *IRAQI WAR, PHASE, OVERLAP, COMBAT FORCES, PEACEKEEPING, NONLETHAL WEAPONS
Identifiers: (U) PHASES OF CAMPAIGNS, USE OF DEADLY FORCE, NLW(NON-LETHAL WEAPONS)
Abstract: (U) The recent war in Iraq has demonstrated that contemporary and future wars are likely to increase the overlap between the decisive combat (phase III) and transition operations (phase IV) of a campaign. The presence of this overlap requires operational commanders to ensure their forces are trained to and equipped with both lethal and non-lethal means in order to be able to use the correct level of force necessary to accomplish the mission. While "Shock and Awe" operations may quickly achieve decisive military results, they may also place US forces in a position where the local populace, comprised largely of non-combatants, may be energized into becoming part of an unruly, even riotous, mob. US combat forces placed into situations like this will need the capability provided by non-lethal weapons (NLW). An operational commander's combat forces need this ability to operate across the use-of-force continuum, and they need this capability, which must be both light and relevant, right now. In addition, ensuring US forces minimize non-combatant casualties, and thus do not further alienate the local populace, will be an important objective of phase IV operations. In the end, NLW gives the operational commander's combat forces the ability to make a positive difference; that of using the right amount of force for the specific situation.

ADA463231 
Killing Them Softly: At War with Children 

Descriptive Note: Research paper
Personal Author(s): Barnes, Yvette D
Report Date: 17 May 2005
Media Count: 27   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *MILITARY FORCES(UNITED STATES), *MILITARY OPERATIONS, *MILITARY HISTORY, *WARFARE, *CHILDREN, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, *MILITARY TRAINING, DEVELOPING NATIONS, MILITARY FORCES(FOREIGN), INSURGENCY, IRAQI WAR, KIDNAPPINGS, FEMALES, MILITARY DOCTRINE, BATTLEFIELDS, RECRUITING, CASE STUDIES, ETHICS, MALES
Identifiers: (U) *CHILD SOLDIERS, UNDERAGE COMBATANTS, CHILD COMBATANTS, HUMAN SHIELDS, CIVIL WARS, REBEL FORCES, FOURTH GENERATION WARFARE, LIGHT WEAPONS, ROE(RULES OF ENGAGEMENT), LAW OF ARMED CONFLICT, VIGNETTE FIELD TRAINING, PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS, ABDUCTED CHILDREN, RECOMMENDATIONS
Abstract: (U) Children have been present in some capacity on almost every battlefield in every era. Today more than 300,000 child soldiers, boys and girls, are serving as armed hostile combatants in insurgencies, civil wars, and other conflicts on every continent except Australia and Antarctica. The U.S. military and other military forces have already found themselves in battle with underage combatants -- with varying degrees of "success." This likelihood will only continue to increase as professional soldiers engage in peacekeeping operations and military operations other than war. The phenomena of child soldiers must factor into all facets of military combat doctrine, training, and weapons technology. A multi-phased predeployment to post-engagement approach that incorporates clear legal guidelines, tailored training, advanced planning, critical intelligence, and the employment of non-lethal weapons can effectively prepare troops to take some of the guesswork out of potentially deadly confrontations with underage combatants. Further, such an approach will allow troops to respond effectively and appropriately to the threat posed by child soldiers and reduce or eliminate the potential for demoralizing aftereffects on the adult professional soldier.

ADA434298 
Human Effectiveness and Risk Characterization of the Electromuscular Incapacitation Device - A Limited Analysis of the TASER. Part 2. Appendices 
Personal Author(s): Maier, Andrew , Nance, Patricia, Price, Paul, Sherry, Clifford J, Reilly, J P
Report Date: Mar 2005
Media Count: 31   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *WEAPONS EFFECTS, *MUSCLES, *INCAPACITATION, *RISK ANALYSIS, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, DATA BASES, HUMANS, SHOCK, CASUALTIES, WOUNDS AND INJURIES, ELECTRIC CURRENT, ANTIMATERIEL AMMUNITION
Identifiers: (U) *TASERS, STUN GUNS, ELECTRIC SHOCK
Abstract: (U) Non-Lethal Weapons (NLWs) are becoming increasingly important assets in nontraditional military operations, such as peacekeeping missions or humanitarian aid operations, where the use of lethal force may not be a desired first response for force protection. NLWs are weapons that "are explicitly designed and primarily employed so as to incapacitate personnel or materiel, while minimizing fatalities, permanent injury to personnel, and undesired damage to property and the environment" (DoD, 1996). Various types of weapons are part of the Department of Defense (DoD) non-lethal weapons program, employing riot control agents, electromagnetic, mechanical, or acoustic technologies. DoD Directive 3000.3 calls for these weapons to "achieve an appropriate balance between the competing goals of having a low probability of causing death, permanent injury, and collateral materiel damage, and a high probability of having the desired anti-personnel or anti-materiel effects: (DoD, 1996). In an effort to achieve this balance the Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Human Effects Center of Excellence (JNLW HECOE) requested that Toxicology Excellence for Risk Assessment (TERA) organize a workshop of leading risk assessment experts, who were joined by Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) from the DoD and its contractors, to develop a framework for characterizing the risks from military use of NLWs. The results of risk characterization are to provide decision-makers with the probability of intended target response effects and unintended effects so that the risk could be weighed against the effectiveness and benefits of using NLWs. The TASER International Database (TI data) was provided by TASER International in July 2003. The TI data consists of 3,459 records submitted by individuals in the U.S. and Canada. The TI data includes information on a specific use of a TASER. The report includes information on the target individual, how and why the device was used, the number of shots fired, and the outcome. 7

ADA464450 
Airpower's Emasculation? -- Non-lethal Weapons in Joint Urban Operations 

Descriptive Note: Final rept.
Personal Author(s): Nisbett, Donald A
Report Date: 14 Feb 2005
Media Count: 30   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *AIR POWER, *URBAN AREAS, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, WEAPONS, TERRORISTS, WARFARE, GLOBAL, COSTS, COST REDUCTION, NONCOMBATANT, TERRORISM, MILITARY CAPABILITIES, PRECISION, SEARCHING, AMMUNITION, CASUALTIES
Abstract: (U) The Presidential declaration of a Global War on Terror (GWOT) ensured that the future battlespace will occur in urban environments, in search of terrorist operatives and networks. Advancements in precision weapons have done much to allay concerns over minimizing collateral damage and reducing noncombatant casualties in Joint Urban Operations (JUO), however, the consideration in proposing airpower's use of non-lethal weapons (NLW) is the improvement in capability. This paper considers the efficacy of airpower in JUO with the addition of NLW, given the GWOT and future operations, proposing that overall capability could be enhanced. Considerations include costs, hearts and minds, and stability and support operations (SASO). Airpower with NLW capability could stem the tide of rising costs by reducing munitions and rebuilding expenses. Additionally, intelligence gathered from captured vice killed terrorists could lead to operations concluding sooner, thereby indirectly reducing the overall cost for a particular operation. The second consideration looks at how utilizing airpower with NLW could reduce the footprint of U.S. forces, while minimizing noncombatant casualties and collateral damage, and depreciate the negative effects of media coverage. The third position is as the future of likely military intervention points to conducting SASO in urban environments; NLW capability would mean a broader application of airpower in these missions.

ADA464501 
The Operational Aspect of Nonlethal Weapons; More Than Just a Tactical Capability

Descriptive Note: Final rept.
Personal Author(s): Stein, Jr, Terry L
Report Date: 14 Feb 2005
Media Count: 27   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, MILITARY OPERATIONS, WARFARE, LETHALITY, COLLATERAL DAMAGE, ENEMY, BENEFITS, INCAPACITATION
Abstract: (U) The benefits of nonlethal weapons, both politically and morally, are the ability to incapacitate the enemy without killing him and to minimize collateral damage. Development and employment of nonlethal weapons will increase as these concerns will certainly influence the policymakers within the government. Nonlethal weapons are not meant to eliminate the need for lethal weapons but rather to complement them and provide additional options. Within the spectrum of force, nonlethal weapons provide the operational commander the means necessary to dominate that portion between diplomacy and lethality. The current lethal options have their limitations. The main limitation is the lack of options between utilizing lethal force and doing nothing. Options that fall in between need to be incorporated into all levels of combat so that the commanders are allowed to respond to differing threats with the appropriate response. These options are especially important due to the operational commander being increasingly tasked to achieve his objectives while minimizing casualties and collateral damage.

ADA464221 
Operational Planning Considerations for the Use of Riot Control Agents in Military Operations Other Than War 

Descriptive Note: Research paper
Personal Author(s): Hoppe, Jeffrey J
Report Date: 14 Feb 2005
Media Count: 23   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *POLICIES, *ETHICS, *MILITARY PLANNING, *IRRITATING AGENTS, *OPERATIONS OTHER THAN WAR, *RIOT CONTROL AGENTS, *INTERNATIONAL LAW, MILITARY FORCES(UNITED STATES), VIETNAM WAR, NONLETHAL WEAPONS, TEAR GAS, HERBICIDES, CIVIL DISTURBANCES, UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT, TREATIES, MILITARY DOCTRINE, MILITARY HISTORY
Identifiers: (U) GENEVA GAS CONVENTIONS, BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION, CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION, JOINT DOCTRINE, NONLETHAL GASES, CHRISTIAN JUST WAR THEORY, MORAL ISSUES, LEGAL ISSUES, LAW OF ARMED CONFLICT, OPERATIONAL PLANNING
Abstract: (U) Operational planners must be knowledgeable of key treaties that influence the legality of riot control agents, including the Geneva Gas Protocol, the Biological Weapons Convention, and the Chemical Weapons Convention. Ideally, they would also understand the spirit behind these treaties, and be sensitive to discrepancies between various nations and organizations in their interpretations of these treaties. Perhaps the best guidance for determining if riot control agents are appropriate for Military Operations Other Than War (MOOTW) are the six principles of MOOTW themselves: objective, unity of effort, security, restraint, perseverance, and legitimacy. While operational planners must stay within the boundaries outlined by international law and current policies, the principles of MOOTW are useful guidelines for exposing political, cultural, and social issues that are vital to mission accomplishment.

ADA449551 
Weapons: A Report on the Industry 

Descriptive Note: Annual rept., 2004-2005
Personal Author(s): Maybaumwisniewski, Susan , Brown, Shannon, Kreitler, Walter
Report Date: Jan 2005
Media Count: 32   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *WEAPONS, *DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE, *MUNITIONS INDUSTRY, UNMANNED, MILITARY MODERNIZATION, UNCONVENTIONAL WARFARE, TRANSFORMATIONS, INDUSTRIAL PREPAREDNESS, NONLETHAL WEAPONS, GLOBALIZATION
Identifiers: (U) *WEAPONS INDUSTRY, INNOVATIONS, UAV(UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES)
Abstract: (U) The weapons industry -- with products ranging from nuclear weapons to non-lethal arms -- is large and complex. Despite this complexity, it maintains an especially close relationship with its main customer, the United States military. Therefore, while the weapons industry faces many of the same challenges as other industries, it also faces unique issues as a major supplier to a transforming military. This paper examines the industry's ability to perceive and effectively incorporate disruptive innovations, as defined by Clayton Christensen, which may dramatically change the nature of the industry. Ability to anticipate and respond to change is not only necessary for a victorious military, as noted by General Giulio Douhet, the Italian air strategist, but is also vital for the survival of an industry.

ADA436202 
Non-Lethal Weapons: Opportunities for R&D 

Descriptive Note: Technical memo
Personal Author(s): Stocker, Harold, Dick, John, Berube, Gilles
Report Date: 01 Dec 2004
Media Count: 166   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, MILITARY FORCES(FOREIGN), ACOUSTIC WAVES, CANADA, OPERATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS, DIRECTED ENERGY WEAPONS, COUNTERMEASURES
Identifiers: (U) AQ F05-11-3409, FOREIGN REPORTS
Abstract: (U) The aim of this overview study is to recommend the Non-Lethal Weapon (NLW) research and development that Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC) could conduct over the next decade (and possibly beyond) in response to emerging defence and security NLW requirements. It summarizes the DRDC perspective of NLW technologies, which includes non-lethal applications of electro-magnetic and acoustic directed energy. The study shows that by channeling existing expertise and effort, DRDC could, over time, provide the Canadian Forces with science and technology knowledge on the effects, operational effectiveness and counter-measures of selected, emerging NLW technologies. La pr sente tude d'ensemble a pour objet de recommander les travaux de recherche et d veloppement sur les armes non l tales (ANL) que Recherche et d veloppement pour la d fense Canada (RDDC) pourrait effectuer au cours des dix prochaines ann es (et peut tre au del ) pour satisfaire aux nouveaux besoins d'ANL en vue d'assurer la d fense et la s curit . Elle r sume la perspective de RDDC sur les technologies d'ANL, notamment les applications non l tales de l' nergie lectromagn tique et acoustique dirig e. L' tude montre que si elle canalise l'expertise et le travail actuels, RDDC pourrait, au fil du temps, fournir aux Forces canadiennes des connaissances scientifiques et technologiques sur les effets, l'efficacit op rationnelle et les contre-mesures li es certaines technologies nouvelles en mati re d'ANL.

ADA431128 
Non-Lethal Weapons and Future Peace Enforcement Operations (Les armes non letales dans les operations d'imposition de la paix) 

Descriptive Note: Technical rept.
Report Date: Nov 2004
Media Count: 66   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *MILITARY EXERCISES, *PEACEKEEPING, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, *NATO FORCES, SCENARIOS, INTERNATIONAL POLITICS, MISSION PROFILES, OPERATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS, THREAT EVALUATION, BIOLOGICAL WARFARE, CHEMICAL WARFARE, WEAPONS EFFECTS, INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS, INTERNATIONAL LAW, LOW INTENSITY CONFLICT, URBAN WARFARE, ANTIPERSONNEL WEAPONS
Identifiers: (U) NATO FURNISHED, FOREIGN REPORTS, ASYMMETRIC WARFARE
Abstract: (U) The NATO Long Term Scientific Study (LTSS) SAS-040 has been tasked to prepare a Multinational Exercise (MNE) dedicated to the analysis of the use of non-lethal weapons in future peace enforcement operations. To achieve this aim, experts from various origins -- military, lawyers, technical experts, representatives of industry, non-governmental organizations, etc. -- have participated in this MNE. Three main themes have been adopted in tackling the use of NLW: Operational context; Technologies that can be envisaged; Legal and Political implications; and constraints to be taken into account. This document presents the agreed output of the MNE. Specific chapters deal with the general aspects of the themes under consideration. A particular analysis of six concrete situations in which NLW might be used has also been realized. For each theme, conclusions and recommendations are developed in the last chapter of the document.

ADA426567 
Free Fall Experimental Data for Non-Lethal Artillery Projectile Parts 

Descriptive Note: Final rept. Jan-Jun 2004
Personal Author(s): Garner, James M, Maher, Michael, Minnicino, Michael A
Report Date: Sep 2004
Media Count: 18   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *PROJECTILES, *ARTILLERY AMMUNITION, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, EXPERIMENTAL DATA, PAYLOAD, FREE FALL MODELS
Identifiers: (U) PE62618A
Abstract: (U) U.S. military forces increasingly find themselves in situations compatible with the use of non-lethal weapons. Extending the range and spheres of influence of these non-lethal weapons is considered essential as an option in future conflict scenarios. With this in mind, the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, and the U.S. Army Armament Research Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) at Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey, have joined together in an effort to produce a non-lethal artillery projectile. With support from the Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, and Edgewood Chemical Biological Command, Maryland. ARDEC has accepted the challenge of selecting and tailoring the payload and expulsion issues. while ARL will focus on its traditional area of expertise in ballistics and will develop technologies for a non-lethal carrier for the selected payload. The goal of this effort is to project non-lethal payloads to ranges similar to those of standard artillery.

ADA426021 
Transforming How We Fight Through Effects-Based Operations and Non-Lethal Capabilities 

Descriptive Note: Research paper
Personal Author(s): Hall, David B
Report Date: 17 May 2004
Media Count: 38   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *MILITARY MODERNIZATION, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, WARFARE, MILITARY CAPABILITIES
Identifiers: (U) MILITARY TRANSFORMATION, EFFECTS-BASED OPERATIONS
Abstract: (U) Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld has directed that the defense establishment transform the way it thinks about and conducts warfare. This means analyzing the new security environment and building capability sets to meet emerging threats and challenges. The fact of the matter is, there are no more symmetrical threats at which the U.S. can aim its highly lethal military. Instead, emerging threats are amorphous, ubiquitous, and asymmetric. The U.S. and its military must be prepared to respond to these threats in a forceful way that demonstrates their determination and resolve. The catch is that they must also take into consideration America's growing aversion to the casualties and physical destruction inherent in conventional warfare. U.S. leaders and planners must be prepared to think and act asymmetrically just like their adversaries. Effects-based operations, with its focus on strategic effects vice physical destruction, combined with current and emerging non-lethal technologies with their temporary and reversible effects, provide an effective operational construct for meeting emerging threats head-on while also coinciding with American demands for quick victory and minimal collateral damage.

ADA435126 
Weapons: A Report on the Industry 2004 

Descriptive Note: Industry Study 5240-11
Personal Author(s): Maybaumwisniewski, Susan, Kreitler, Walter, Kerr, Laurence, Laurence, Janice
Report Date: Jan 2004
Media Count: 28   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *SMALL ARMS, *MUNITIONS INDUSTRY, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, WEAPONS, NUCLEAR WEAPONS, ARMY PERSONNEL, ENERGETIC PROPERTIES
Identifiers: (U) WEAPONS INDUSTRY
Abstract: (U) The weapons industry provides critical support directly to the military element and indirectly to other (e.g., diplomatic, informational, and economic) elements of national power. The industry, with products ranging from nuclear weapons to non-lethal arms, is frenetic with large and small, expanding and contracting, robustly funded and withering segments. Given this breadth, we chose to focus on three areas: small arms, non-lethal technologies, and energetic. We chose them because transformation has not taken hold across these areas as they have fallen beyond mainstream focus. Energetic remains under the purview of government laboratories, non-lethal technologies are interesting, but nascent, and the soldier and his rifle are an icon of legacy systems. To preserve comparatives advantage, we recommend a strategic review of these segments of the weapons industry. This review should determine if these segments are poised to deliver needed capabilities and if over-focus on high-end precision denigrates the role of small arms, non-lethal technologies, and energetic in national power.

ADA421008 
A Health Hazard Assessment for Blast Overpressure Exposures 

Descriptive Note: Annual rept. Jul 2002-Aug 2003
Personal Author(s): Stuhmiller, James H
Report Date: Sep 2003
Media Count: 63   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *WEAPON SYSTEMS, *HEALTH, *OVERPRESSURE, *EXPOSURE(PHYSIOLOGY), *MEDICAL RESEARCH, *BLAST, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, HAZARDS, ELECTROOPTICS, THREATS, BATTLEFIELDS, PILOTS, CONVENTIONAL WARFARE, COVERT OPERATIONS, INFANTRY PERSONNEL, NIGHT VISION, MANPORTABLE EQUIPMENT, PLATOON LEVEL ORGANIZATIONS, TRAUMA, IMAGE INTENSIFIERS(ELECTRONICS), ENEMY PERSONNEL
Abstract: (U) This report describes progress toward understanding and quantifying injury arising from impact or impulsive loading to the body from blast, projectiles, or vehicle restraint systems.

ADA425780 
Exploring New Concepts for Joint Urban Operations 

Descriptive Note: Final rept.
Personal Author(s): Wahlman, Alec, Bean, Mark, Anderson, Gary
Report Date: Aug 2003
Media Count: 244   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *MILITARY OPERATIONS, *MILITARY CAPABILITIES, *TACTICAL RECONNAISSANCE, *JOINT MILITARY ACTIVITIES, *WAR GAMES, *SURVEILLANCE, *URBAN WARFARE, ELECTRONIC WARFARE, LOGISTICS SUPPORT, INTELLIGENCE, OPERATIONAL READINESS, TEAMS(PERSONNEL), PRECISION, MILITARY PLANNING, STRIKE WARFARE, SITUATIONAL AWARENESS, NONLETHAL WEAPONS
Identifiers: (U) *OPERATIONAL CONCEPTS, JOINT ADVANCED WARFIGHTING PROGRAM, ISR(INTELLIGENCE SURVEILLANCE AND RECONNAISSANCE), INFORMATION OPERATIONS, PRECISION STRIKE, RED TEAMING, URBAN COMBAT OPERATIONS, WARFIGHTER NEEDS, WARFIGHTER CAPABILITIES
Abstract: (U) JAWP conducted four war games that explored the utility of six new urban operational concepts. The purpose of these war games was to better understand the utility, strengths, and weaknesses of each course of action, and to learn more about how they interrelate. The approach generally involved giving Blue Teams varying degrees of freedom to apply the operational concepts within urban scenarios, while Red Teams countered with their own courses of action. The Blue players merged the different operational concepts into one larger concept, with variations depending on the scenario. The Blue players also displayed patterns in the types of urban capabilities they needed in such areas as intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance; electronic warfare and information operations; precision strike; non-lethal weapons; urban logistics; civilian support; and coordination. Researchers investigating technological solutions for urban operations should find value in the capability demand patterns of the Blue players, and what the Red players thought Blue needed.


ADA463432 
Non-Lethal Weapons: Setting Our Phasers on Stun? Potential Stratetgic Blessings and Curses of Non-Lethal Weapons on the Battlefield 

Descriptive Note: Occasional paper no. 34
Personal Author(s): Nutley, Erik L
Report Date: Aug 2003
Media Count: 73   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, WARFARE, GLOBAL, POLICIES, STRATEGY, LEADERSHIP, BATTLEFIELDS, OPERATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS, PROCUREMENT, MILITARY COMMANDERS, TERRORISM
Abstract: (U) Though still in its infancy, the emergence of non-lethal technology in recent years has the potential to change the way wars are fought. Whether non-lethal weapons become a key component of a revolutionary transformation of the military depends on an analysis of their likely strategic effects. This paper is intended to provide an overview of some of the key issues facing the development and employment of non-lethal weapons for senior military and policy leaders. The paper begins with a discussion of recent technology developments for non-lethal weapons. Next, it describes current capabilities as well as the research, development, and procurement efforts needed to bring more non-lethal weaponry into the force structure. The discussion concludes that the current emphasis in non-lethal weapons is on defensive, tactical uses. The strategic advantages and drawbacks of non-lethal weapons their potential to affect policy outcomes are examined next. After that, topics including legal concerns and operational issues that need to be resolved before non-lethal weapons can be fielded on a greater scale are explored. The ability of non-lethal weapons to positively influence the global war on terrorism is also assessed. It is suggested that advantages of non-lethal weapons in these operations outweigh their drawbacks. Finally, a concluding assessment of the future of non-lethal weapons is offered.

ADA429181 
Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Discriminate Use of Force 
Descriptive Note: Final rept.
Report Date: Jul 2003
Media Count: 39   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *DISCRIMINATE ANALYSIS, MILITARY FORCES(UNITED STATES), MILITARY OPERATIONS, IRAQ, LEADERSHIP, TASK FORCES, MILITARY CAPABILITIES, EVOLUTION(GENERAL), ETHICS, MILITARY COMMANDERS, POLITICAL PARTIES, AFGHANISTAN, NONLETHAL WEAPONS
Identifiers: (U) DUF(DISCRIMINATE USE OF FORCE), EBO(EFFECT-BASED OPERATIONS)
Abstract: (U) In the terms of reference, the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics directed the task force "to conduct a comprehensive study of the ends and means of precision compellence, or the nuanced use of force, in concert with coalition partners, to achieve political, economic and moral change in countries affecting US interests." Real-world events have since underscored the need for such a study; indeed, the U.S. military applied key elements of a measured, nuanced approach in both the Afghanistan and Iraq campaigns. We are pleased to note this evolution in operations and a parallel evolution in the thinking of the combatant commands and Services. Because of this evolution, it is no longer as necessary as it once was to sell the fundamental objectives of what we term here the discriminate use of force (DUF). The notion of using military force in discriminate fashion goes back at least to the teachings of Sun Tzu. In the past, however, the military tools available to political and military leaders rarely supported such an approach. As recent events have shown, this situation is changing. New precision and non-lethal weapons and emerging capabilities such as information dominance now enable the discriminate use of force. These emerging capabilities exist within a political context that requires the use of discriminate force. Moreover, destructive power alone is not sufficient to reach many U.S. goals, and it must be properly applied. Efficiency is one motivation. More significant is the need for discriminate use, particularly when multiple strategic and operational objectives are in tension.

ADA430907 
Evaluating the U.S. Military's Development of Strategic and Operational Doctrine for Non-Lethal Weapons in a Complex Security Environment 

Descriptive Note: Master's thesis
Personal Author(s): Ogawa, James S
Report Date: 06 Jun 2003
Media Count: 139   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *MILITARY DOCTRINE, *JOINT MILITARY ACTIVITIES, *URBAN AREAS, *OPERATIONS OTHER THAN WAR, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, NATIONAL SECURITY, BIBLIOGRAPHIES, THESES, CIVILIAN POPULATION, MILITARY MODERNIZATION, TRANSFORMATIONS, DAMAGE CONTROL, ANTIPERSONNEL EFFECTS, COLLATERAL DAMAGE
Identifiers: (U) *JOINT NONLETHAL WEAPONS DOCTRINE, MOOTW(MILITARY OPERATIONS OTHER THAN WAR), COE(CURRENT OPERATING ENVIRONMENT), ASYMMETRIC THREATS, NONSTATE ACTORS, CIVILIAN MILITARY RELATIONS, PSO(PEACE SUPPORT OPERATIONS), CIVILIAN DAMAGE, CIVILIAN CASUALTIES
Abstract: (U) The end of the Cold War gave rise to a complex security environment resulting in a fundamental shift of focus from unrestricted warfare against a well-defined enemy towards a wide variety of military operations other than war (MOOTW) characterized by urbanized terrain, joint expeditions, non-state actors, and asymmetric threats. However, it is in exactly this kind of complex environment that non-lethal weapons (NLWs) can make major contributions by enabling more effective political-military strategies, and potentially changing the nature of war itself. To date, no joint doctrinal guidance on NLWs has been published. As a result of a lack of NLWs doctrine, there is an increased risk that NLWs supporting activities develop inefficiently, haphazardly, and possibly ineffectively. Thus, the central question is whether service publications or doctrine, training, leader development, organization, materiel, and soldier support (DTLOMS) exist which provide the U.S. Government's or services' policies and goals of its application of NLWs in a complex security environment. Four major areas are analyzed: military doctrine's role in shaping future technologies, the purpose of joint doctrine, the dynamics of MOOTW and peace support operations (PSOs), and finally, services as well as joint implementation and exploration of NLWs doctrine. An extensive bibliography of books, journal articles, government documents, unpublished materials, and other sources is included.


ADA416553 
An Evaluation of the Electrical Properties and Bio-Behavioral Effects of Four Commercially Available Tasers and the JAYCOR Sticky Shocker 
Descriptive Note: Interim rept. Jan 2002-Jun 2003
Personal Author(s): Sherry, Clifford, Brown, Carroll, Beason, Charles, Dayton, Thomas, Ross, James
Report Date: Jun 2003
Media Count: 32   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, ELECTRIC CURRENT, BIOENGINEERING
Identifiers: (U) *TASERS, *BIOBEHAVIOR EFFECTS, *JAYCOR STICKY SHOCKER, ELECTROSHOCK, MUSCLE CONTRACTION, ANIMAL BEHAVIOR, MINIPIGS, PE62202F, WUAFRL7757B317
Abstract: (U) The TASER is a device that propels two darts into a subject and transmits short pulses of electric current through wires, causing involuntary muscle contractions that incapacitate. Four commercially available TASERs (Tasertron's Model TE86 and Model 95HP; TASER International's Model 34000 "Air TASER" and Model 44000 M26 "Advanced TASER") and a prototype self-contained TASER-like device (Jaycor's "Sticky Shocker") were tested for effectiveness. The output voltage of each was obtained using four different voltage divider dummy loads: 100, 1,000, 5,000, and 10,000 ohms. Eleven minipigs (Sus scrofa) were exposed to the output of each device for 15 sec, with a minimum rest period of 45 hrs between succeeding exposures. All of the devices caused most animals to run in circles. These swine were able to maintain posture and to jump. Rhythmic contractions of the thorax and abdominal muscles were also observed. Only one device, the TASER International Model 44000 M26 advanced TASER, caused a loss of posture (7 of 11 animals). Two of the 7 were able to regain posture while being tasered. The relative effectiveness of the various devices appeared to be related to total charge flux, with the M26 Advanced TASER having the largest value by far. maximizing the total charge flux output from a TASER should be the basis for any program designed to increase the device's effectiveness.


ADA418691
Alternatives to Anti-Personnel Landmines (Solutions de remplacement aux mines antipersonnel) 

Descriptive Note: Technical rept.
Personal Author(s): Wong, K T, Carbone, E R
Report Date: May 2003
Media Count: 172   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *LAND MINES, *ANTIPERSONNEL MINES, SCENARIOS, MILITARY OPERATIONS, NATO, SIMULATION, MILITARY STRATEGY, INTEGRATED SYSTEMS, MISSION PROFILES, INTEROPERABILITY, OPERATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS, FEASIBILITY STUDIES, OPERATIONS RESEARCH, AREA DENIAL, ANTIPERSONNEL AMMUNITION, NONLETHAL WEAPONS, NATO FORCES
Identifiers: (U) NATO FURNISHED, FOREIGN REPORTS, ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGY
Abstract: (U) The study examines the impacts of no longer having Anti-Personnel Landmines available to the NATO warfighter. The report considers alternative systems and/or concepts for replacing any resulting capability shortfall. The systems and concepts were to be either materiel (technical solutions) or non-materiel (doctrinal or procedural) in nature. The study provides tactical and operational impact statements of conducting military operations without Anti-Personnel Landmines available to NATO forces. The report provides a method to address the functionality of alternatives and to assess their capability to address barrier-type mission parameters.



ADA476393 
Non-Lethal Chemical Weapons 

Personal Author(s): Weilacher, Lester A
Report Date: Apr 2003
Media Count: 17   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *MASS DESTRUCTION WEAPONS, *CHEMICAL ORDNANCE, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, TERRORISTS, USSR, THEATER LEVEL OPERATIONS, AUTOMATIC WEAPONS, PASSENGER AIRCRAFT, UNITED STATES, HOSTAGES, EXPLOSIVES
Abstract: (U) Little more than a month after terrorists took control of four passenger aircraft in the United States and unleashed the horror of 9/11, 50 Chechen terrorists armed with automatic weapons and carrying large quantities of explosives seized the Moscow music theater during an evening performance. The terrorists immediately threatened to kill the theater's roughly 800 occupants if the Russian government did not cease its military campaign in Chechnya. Although initial negotiations secured the release of some hostages, talks quickly stalled. Facing a protracted standoff and fearing the deaths of the remaining hostages, authorities cleared the way for action by Russian special police units. On October 26, special police units reportedly pumped an incapacitating gas into the theater. During the ensuing operation, police killed all of the terrorists and freed the majority of the hostages. However, 117 of the hostages died from the effects of the gas (Glasser, 15). While many people credit Russia for making the most out of a no-win situation, others saw the Russian action as a potential violation of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). This controversy continues today as the United States itself investigates new substances that can be used to disable terrorists-perhaps even battlefield opponents (Knickerbocker, 1). More importantly, the Moscow theater crisis, combined with knowledge gained through this elective, sparked my interest in exploring non-lethal chemical weapons. The purpose of this issue paper is to analyze issues related to US military interest in non-lethal weapons with a focus on non-lethal chemical weapons. After establishing a link between non-lethal chemical weapons and weapons of mass destruction (WMD), this paper will examine various reasons why states seek non-lethal weapons capabilities.



ADA413818 
Taser Area Denial Device: A Human Effects Review 

Descriptive Note: Interim rept. Feb-Oct 2001
Personal Author(s): Gonzalez, Daniel L, Constable, Roxanne, Sherry, Clifford J, Dayton, Thomas, Klauenberg, B J
Report Date: Mar 2003
Media Count: 13   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *ELECTRIC CURRENT, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, LASERS, LAW ENFORCEMENT, AREA DENIAL, ANTIPERSONNEL MINES, ARRHYTHMIA
Identifiers: (U) AQ M03-08-2080, TADD(TASER AREA DENIAL DEVICE), HUMAN EFFECTS, STUN GUNS, ELECTRIC SHOCK, PE62202F, WUAFRL7757B317
Abstract: (U) The Taser Area Denial Device (TADD) is a non-lethal alternative to anti-personnel landmines and is a concept based on Taser technology. Specifically, the TADD is based on electronic components manufactured and sold by TASERTRON, who exclusively manufactures laser products for law enforcement agencies. The concept is not commercially available and is early in its developmental stage. The TADD should incapacitate an individual without causing any acute or long term injury With the exception of the independent studies mentioned in this report, the electrical effects on humans are extracted from experiments and case reports dealing with post exposure clinical evaluations or anecdotal reports from the manufactures or users. These anecdotal reports are essentially endorsements and should be viewed with the same critical eye as any endorsement.


ADA408809 
Biological Effects of Directed Energy 

Descriptive Note: Final rept. Apr 1997-Apr 2002
Personal Author(s): Dayton, Thomas, Beason, Charles, Hitt, M K, Rogers, Walter, Cook, Michael
Report Date: Nov 2002
Media Count: 60   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *DIRECTED ENERGY WEAPONS, ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS, AIR FORCE RESEARCH, BIOLOGICAL WARFARE, BIOTECHNOLOGY, RADIOFREQUENCY, ACOUSTIC FIELDS, NONLETHAL WEAPONS
Identifiers: (U) PE62202F, WUAFRL7757B317
Abstract: (U) This Final Report summarizes the biological effects research conducted by Veridian Engineering personnel under contract F41624-96-C-9009 in support of the Air Force Research Laboratory's Radio Frequency Radiation Branch from April 1997 to April 2002. Biological effects research and consultation were provided in five major areas: Active Denial System (also known as Vehicle Mounted Active Denial System), radio frequency radiation (RFR) health and safety, non-lethal weapon biological effects research, the newly formed Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Human Effects Center of Excellence, and Biotechnology. The report is organized by research efforts within the major research areas, providing title, objective, a brief description, relevance to the AF or DoD, funding, and product

ADA422284 
NERD (Network Enabled Resource Device) 

Personal Author(s): Denewiler, Thomas, Laird, Robin T
Report Date: Jul 2002
Media Count: 15   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *COMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS, TEST AND EVALUATION, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, ROBOTICS, RISK, MILITARY EQUIPMENT, SECURITY, TEAMS(PERSONNEL), ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT, PROCESSING EQUIPMENT, REDUCTION, RESPONSE, GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM, RADIO RECEIVERS, SOUND, EXTERNAL STORES, STORAGE BATTERIES, STANDARDIZATION, EMBEDDING, VIDEO SIGNALS, REFUELING, DC TO DC CONVERTERS, INTRUSION DETECTION, NONLETHAL WEAPONS
Abstract: (U) Network Enabled Resource Devices (NERDs) combine the most common electronic components used in robotic applications into a standard electronics box with "plug-n-play" capabilities. Risk reduction efforts, systems testing and integration, and modifying the functionality of evolving systems becomes greatly simplified by standardizing core hardware and software components; in many cases, minimal software modifications are required to adapt an existing NERD for an emergent application. Internal components include an integral DC-DC converter, a wireless bridge and hub allowing point-to-multipoint communications, an audio/video hardware CODEC, a RISC-based processor with FPGA-based I/O, and a GPS receiver. NERDs can accept 12- 36VDC to power all components and are compatible with standard military batteries. Two 8-pin input/output data ports connected directly to the embedded processor allow for a wide range of control flexibility in a variety of applications. Implementations to date include controlling a non-lethal weapons pod on the MDARS-Exterior robot, an intelligent garage-door opener for the exterior robot refueling area, a communications/GPS module for a security team response vehicle, and an embedded controller for intruder detection systems.



ADA403230 
Proof of Principle for an 81-mm Nonlethal Mortar Cartridge 

Descriptive Note: Final rept.
Personal Author(s): Garner, James M, Lyon, Davie H
Report Date: May 2002
Media Count: 23   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *CARTRIDGES, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, WARFARE, DEPLOYMENT, ARMY RESEARCH, DEFENSE SYSTEMS, COST EFFECTIVENESS, NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING, RELIABILITY, CONFIGURATIONS, PEACEKEEPING, OPERATIONS OTHER THAN WAR
Identifiers: (U) 81-MM CARTRIDGES
Abstract: (U) U.S. military forces increasingly find themselves in situations compatible with the use of nonlethal weapons. Operations other than war (OOTW) (including peacemaking, peacekeeping, and humanitarian missions) in locations such as Somalia, Haiti, Bosnia, and Kosovo repeatedly demonstrate the need for nonlethal weapons that are effective in the roles of crowd control and nondestructive area denial. This report describes the development of a nonlethal 81-mm cartridge that is ultimately viewed as a potential tool in OOTW. Payload configurations and specifications are deliberately absent since the round may have a variety of users with various desired payloads. The creation of this round initially augmented the technology developed for previous standard 81-mm mortar projectiles. The dimensions and weights of the prototype round are such that the round requires no special logistics or handling and is similar in appearance and operation to current rounds, making its employment nearly transparent to the user. Proof-of-principle testing is a logical progression from the initial concept demonstration performed in collaboration between the U.S. Army Research Laboratory and United Defense Limited Partnership. The report discusses nonlethal, 81-mm mortar projectile advancements in expulsion charge parameters and parachute deployment schemes for the prototype. An explanation is also given for the partially successful parachute deployment that occurred in the early phase. Replacement of various round components and their associated benefits are also discussed. The prototype round is intended to employ current technology and hardware with currently available components to create a reliable, cost-effective design. The round has demonstrated functionality and is further proposed as the test vehicle for imminent payload dispersion studies. Other evolutionary designs are also offered as vehicles for improving reliability and augmenting the proven technology described herein.


ADA406644 
Non-Lethal Swimmer Neutralization Study 

Descriptive Note: Final rept.
Personal Author(s): Rehn, Karl W, Riggs, Penny K
Report Date: May 2002
Media Count: 79   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *SWIMMERS, *PERSONNEL DETECTION, IDENTIFICATION SYSTEMS, SUBSURFACE, LAW ENFORCEMENT, SONAR SIGNALS, DETERRENCE, OCEAN SURVEILLANCE, SCUBA DIVERS, NONLETHAL WEAPONS
Identifiers: (U) WATERFRONT SECURITY, SPARKGAP SOUND SOURCES, SWIMMER DETERRENT, PE603228D
Abstract: (U) The Applied Research Laboratories, The University of Texas at Austin (ARL: UT) was tasked to study the means and equipment for non-lethal methods to deter swimmers and scuba divers from restricted areas. This work included identification and evaluation of existing technologies, as well as review of research in security, acoustics, biology, and other fields. Various technologies have been developed as non-lethal weapons for law enforcement, but most of them are not suitable for deterring swimmers and scuba divers, because they are not designed for subsurface use. These existing technologies, as well as equipment currently used for diver deterrence and communication, were evaluated in this stud

ADA404218 
Policy Implications of Non-Lethal Weapons 

Descriptive Note: Strategy research rept.
Personal Author(s): Hamilton, Charles A
Report Date: 09 Apr 2002
Media Count: 30   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *MILITARY FORCES(UNITED STATES), *MILITARY CAPABILITIES, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, MILITARY OPERATIONS, POLICIES, WEAPON SYSTEMS, MILITARY PLANNING
Abstract: (U) As the U.S. military continues to adjust to the post-Cold War era and prepares to protect and advance the nation's interests in the 21st century, it faces vexing choices on the programs, capabilities, and weapon systems it will develop. In his guidance to the panel conducting the Department of Defense's Quadrennial Defense Review, Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld told the members of the panel ".. U.S. forces should have the capabilities and concepts to meet the uncertain challenges of the future." He also told the panel "New combinations of technologies, combined with innovative concepts of operations and organizational arrangements will serve as the multipliers of future U.S. forces, both active and Reserve." Among the new technologies is a class of weapons called non-lethal weapons. Non-lethal weapons are devices designed to thwart the efforts of opposition forces without a high risk of inflicting life-threatening injuries. Some non-lethal weapons achieve this result by temporarily incapacitating humans, some by immobilizing equipment, and some by emplacing barriers to movement. In order to dominate any opponent across the spectrum of conflict from peace monitoring to full-scale war, U.S. forces must take advantage of the capabilities provided by non-lethal weapons. As with any weaponry, the capabilities realized are dictated by the choices made during research, development, and acquisition. With the immature state of some of these technologies, there is a fleeting opportunity to influence the future of non-lethal weaponry. It behooves the well-rounded military expert to become conversant with those technologies and the employment potential they represent.


ADA420661 
Non-Lethal Weaponry: Applications to AC-130 Gunships 

Descriptive Note: Research paper
Personal Author(s): Bobb, Justin L
Report Date: Apr 2002
Media Count: 37   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *GUNSHIPS, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, TACTICAL AIR SUPPORT, GUNS, RANGE FINDING, ANTIMATERIEL AMMUNITION, ANTIPERSONNEL WEAPONS
Identifiers: (U) AC-130 AIRCRAFT
Abstract: (U) The theory and application of non-lethal weapons is not new and has been in use by ground combat troops and civil authorities for some time, in situations requiring the application of less than lethal force, With the increasing involvement of US military in operations other than war, the AC-130 Gunship has been the weapon of choice to provide air support This paper analyzes the viability of integrating existing non-lethal technologies with current AC-130 Gunships' weapons and equipment for use in supporting combat operations or Military Operations Other Than War, The research begins with an overview of the gunship's current capabilities, roles and missions followed by a summarization of current and future non-lethal weapons, There appears to be current and emerging weapons technology which shows great potential in fulfilling the non-lethal requirement for Air Force Special Operations Command's AC-130 Gunships, Many issues, however, must be addressed before these weapons are fully integrated into the AC-130's arsenal, Technical and engineering evaluation, funding, training, doctrine reviews, safety, and legal concerns are some issues requiring further assessment Given the capabilities and flexibility of the gunship and mission suitability, non-lethal weapons integration will enhance US military mission accomplishment by providing commanders a full range of weaponry from an airborne platform which was not previously available to them.


ADA422475
Defense Horizons. Number 9, March 2002. Nonlethal Capabilities: Realizing the Opportunities 

Descriptive Note: Publication
Personal Author(s): Bedard, E R
Report Date: Mar 2002
Media Count: 7   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, MILITARY CAPABILITIES, MILITARY RESEARCH
Identifiers: (U) JNLWP(JOINT NONLETHAL WEAPONS PROGRAM)


ADA400951
Urban Close Air Support and Non-Lethality Descriptive Note: Final rept.
Personal Author(s): Fox, Jackson L
Report Date: 04 Feb 2002
Media Count: 31   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *LETHALITY, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, MILITARY OPERATIONS, USSR, WARFARE, COMBAT EFFECTIVENESS, UNITED STATES, CLOSE SUPPORT, INFANTRY, BATTLEFIELDS, MISSION PROFILES, TERRAIN, GUARANTEES, RESPONSE, TACTICAL AIR SUPPORT, CONFLICT, URBAN AREAS, INFRASTRUCTURE
Abstract: (U) Global urbanization is rapidly changing the face of the world and guarantees that combat will occur in urban areas. Enemies of the United States will utilize the complex infrastructure of cities to asymmetrically counter the technological superiority of U.S. forces. The density of non-combatants in urban areas and the intricate infrastructure present monumental challenges to the U.S. military, particularly with regard to collateral damage and non-combatant casualty. These challenges are evident in the Russian experience in Chechnya. This urban conflict is emblematic of the security challenge the U.S. military will face in the future, and is reviewed with a focus on the implications for the employment of Close Air Support (CAS). This paper examines the use of CAS during military operations on urban terrain (MOUT) and the potential benefit of the use of non-lethal weapons (NLW) from CAS platforms. The combination of CAS and NLWs enhances the combat effectiveness of ground forces while minimizing non-combatant casualty and collateral damage. When used synergistically with lethal weapons, NLWs can increase the lethality of U.S. forces, and also provide a graduated response capability to the commander for any combat situation. CAS and NLWs are not fully incorporated into MOUT training and doctrine. Commanders must develop robust, joint MOUT training to integrate all elements of the combined arms team in the urban environment, and the effects of NLWs must be fully incorporated into mission planning and execution. The time is now to prepare for the challenging and inevitable urban battlefield.


ADA398702
Lack of Effects on Goal-Directed Behavior of High-Intensity Infrasound in a Resonant Reverberant Chamber 

Descriptive Note: Interim rept. Jan 1999-Aug 2000
Personal Author(s): Cook, Michael C, Sherry, Clifford F, Brown, Caroll G, Jauchem, James R
Report Date: 28 Nov 2001
Media Count: 45   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *HIGH INTENSITY, *LOW FREQUENCY, *INFRASOUND, BUILDINGS, RESONANT FREQUENCY, SOUND, RHESUS MONKEYS, UNDERGROUND FACILITIES, NONLETHAL WEAPONS
Identifiers: (U) PE62202F, WUAFRL7757B317
Abstract: (U) It has been hypothesized that high-intensity low-frequency sound (20-100 Hz) and infrasound (below 20 Hz) could incapacitate personnel located within buildings or underground facilities. A unique reverberant resonant chamber was designed and constructed of reinforced concrete, and incorporated a moveable wall to allow tuning to specific frequencies. Two minipigs (Sus scrofa) were trained to press a panel for food delivery. The tuning wall was positioned to create standing waves of maximal intensity at frequencies of 10, 12, 15, and 20 Hz. Four 'subwoofer speakers were used to produce sinusoidal signals at the tuned frequency of the chamber and at 2 and 4 times the tuned frequency. Over numerous trials, there was only a minimal impact on consummatory and escape behavior that rapidly dissipated with repeated exposures. In another series, 2 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained on a continuous, compensatory-tracking task. The tuning wall was set for 10 Hz, with signals at 10 and 20 Hz. Subject behavior was not substantially affected. It seems unlikely that high-intensity acoustic energy (20-80 Hz, up to 145 dB can be used to facilitate hostage rescue. Due to the difficulty of obtaining high sound pressure levels in a large volume, further extensive experimentation is not suggested.


ADA395759 
Support of JCATS Limited V&V 
Descriptive Note: Rept. for 1 Oct 2000-30 Sep 2001
Personal Author(s): Taylor, James G, Neta, Berry
Report Date: Sep 2001
Media Count: 50   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *TARGET ACQUISITION, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, ALGORITHMS, SIMULATION, VERIFICATION, TRAINING DEVICES, CLOSE SUPPORT, COMBAT SUPPORT, ATTRITION, TERRAIN, STANDARDS, CONFLICT, MANUAL OPERATION, URBAN AREAS
Identifiers: (U) JCATS(JOINT CONFLICT AND TACTICAL SIMULATION)
Abstract: (U) The goal of this study effort was to assess the ability of the Joint Conflict and Tactical Simulation (JCATS) to simulate the capabilities of non-lethal weapons (NLW) and to provide a product that can be incorporated into the full VV&A of JCATS. This work investigated the first 32 algorithms on the JNLWD V&V Priority List. It evaluated JCATS algorithms in two ways: (1) verification of computer code against algorithm documentation, and (2) appropriateness of algorithms within context of U.S. Army current model standards. All 32 algorithms were verified, with very few discrepancies with the documentation being found. Of these 32 algorithms, only 25 were documented already by LLNL in the JOATS Algorithm Manual so documentation for the remaining 7 was developed with the help of LLNL from documentation internal to the JCATS computer code. Evaluation of these algorithms (actually a subset of five or so key algorithms) within the context of a compendium of algorithms developed for the Close Combat Tactical Trainer (CCTT) developed by AMSAA revealed that several key algorithms (particularly target acquisition) should be upgraded, if possible. This research also revealed a document that could be used to provide the theoretical basis of most of the AMSAA algorithms, particularly those for attrition. Such a document was never available to LLNL. Although some key algorithms should be upgraded (mainly because of modeling and simulation developments of the last five years or so), all JCATS algorithms (including its target-acquisition algorithm) were at one time more than adequate for analysis purposes. Moreover, overall the algorithms reviewed are deemed to be adequate (particularly in comparison with Janus Army) for playing close combat with non-lethal weapons in urban terrain for purposes of analysis. Further work (particularly along the lines of the issues raised by this work) is necessary, however, to document these modeling issues.


ADA394748 
Non-Lethal Airburst Munition(s) for Objective Individual Combat Weapon 

Personal Author(s): Sanchez, Camilo A
Report Date: 15 Aug 2001
Media Count: 19   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *SMALL ARMS AMMUNITION, *AIRBURST, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, SIMULATION, SYMPOSIA, PAYLOAD, MODELS, DEMONSTRATIONS, FIRING TESTS(ORDNANCE), EXPLOSION EFFECTS, WEAPON SYSTEM EFFECTIVENESS, SMALL ARMS, WEAPONS EFFECTS, KINETIC ENERGY PROJECTILES, GRENADES, PROXIMITY DEVICES
Identifiers: (U) OICW(OBJECTIVE INDIVIDUAL COMBAT WEAPON), VIEWGRAPHS ONLY, PRESENTATION SLIDES


ADA394896 
Non-Lethal Technologies for the Objective Force 

Personal Author(s): Cline, John, Aragon, Arthur J , Jr
Report Date: 20 Jun 2001
Media Count: 28   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, MILITARY REQUIREMENTS, SYMPOSIA, SMALL ARMS AMMUNITION, AIRBURST, ARMY EQUIPMENT, MORTAR AMMUNITION, MILITARY CAPABILITIES, BARRIERS, FIRE SUPPORT, FIRE CONTROL SYSTEMS, AREA DENIAL, GRENADES, ANTIPERSONNEL AMMUNITION, RIOT CONTROL AGENTS, ANTIPERSONNEL WEAPONS
Identifiers: (U) CROWD CONTROL MUNITIONS, VIEWGRAPHS ONLY, PRESENTATION SLIDES
Abstract: (U) This report on Non-Lethal Technologies for the Objective Force consists of 28 presentation slides from the Proceedings of the Armaments for the Army Transformation Conference, held on 18-20 June 2001. The conference was sponsored by NDIA.



ADA390620 
An Analysis of the Strategic Application of Non-Lethal Weapons to Provide Force Protection 

Descriptive Note: Strategy research project
Personal Author(s): Rice, Charles R
Report Date: 10 Apr 2001
Media Count: 32   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *MILITARY STRATEGY, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, ELECTROMAGNETIC PROPERTIES, LASERS, ELECTROMECHANICAL DEVICES, MILITARY CAPABILITIES, CHEMICAL WARFARE, ACOUSTIC COUNTERMEASURES
Identifiers: (U) COUNTERPERSONNEL CAPABILITIES, COUNTERMATERIAL CAPABILITIES
Abstract: (U) The working principles of the U.S. National Security Strategy are to shape the international environment, to respond to threats and crises, and to prepare for an uncertain future. The U.S. continues to respond to a variety of contingencies by using its military capability across the spectrum, including peace operations and humanitarian assistance. U.S. forces are manned, trained, equipped to deter and, if necessary, to fight and win conflicts when this nation's vital interests are threatened. The application of lethal force is the ultimate option for the military element of power. However, some situations warrant options short of lethal force. This study analyzes one available option: the application of non-lethal force to provide force protection. It will describe strategic, operational, and tactical applications of non-lethal weapons during past conflicts, and then preview non-lethal capabilities for the future, including challenges to their use. It concludes with recommendations for the use of non-lethal weapons in selected U.S. military operations.



ADA391063 
Conflict Prevention in the Information Age - Role of Military in Crisis 

Personal Author(s): Matsumura, Goro
Report Date: 30 Mar 2001
Media Count: 33   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *MILITARY STRATEGY, *WESTERN SECURITY(INTERNATIONAL), MILITARY FORCES(UNITED STATES), NATIONAL SECURITY, OPERATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS, MILITARY PLANNING, NATIONAL DEFENSE
Identifiers: (U) STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT, INFORMATION AGE, *CONFLICT PREVENTION
Abstract: (U) What kind of military measures may be effective to prevent crisis from developing into armed conflict in the information age? How should military prepare for that mission? To answer these questions, it is indispensable to analyze the nature of armed conflicts in the information age. In this new age, an aggressor may be a non-state actor and may employ various asymmetrical measures. This new reality will change the calculations for deterrence. Technological or psychological surprise may perform a greater role. Manipulation of information by an aggressor may affect international or domestic public opinion in a greater degree. The situation may be developed too quickly to be followed by key decision makers. Development of new military technologies will raise numerous new ethical problems. Upon the analysis of these new approaches to war, the following three measures are recommended. 1. Establishment of International Information Analysis Center for Conflict Prevention 2. "Double Track Approach" including extensive R&D efforts and establishment of international arms control regimes for new military technologies 3. Active application of Non-lethal Weapons



ADA389780
Non-Lethal Weapons and Strategic Policy Implications for 21st Century Peace Operations 

Descriptive Note: Strategy research rept
Personal Author(s): Capstick, Paul R
Report Date: 26 Feb 2001
Media Count: 32   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *MILITARY OPERATIONS, *PEACETIME, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE, MILITARY STRATEGY, MISSIONS
Abstract: (U) Non-lethal weapons are a relatively new and evolving area, with Department of Defense policy published in July 1996. Furthermore, peace operations have assumed a predominate role for the United States military with no reduction to these type missions in sight. For most peace operations neither conventional economic sanctions, nor a Gulf War type response provide the appropriate answer. However, scientific and technical advances in non-lethal technologies provide a valuable tool for our forces and government that could play a vital role in future peace operations. Although viewed most often as impacting the tactical level of operations, the potential impacts non-lethal weapons will have on strategic policy are important. This paper examines the pertinent technologies and policies, what issues are applicable, and concludes with recommendations for future policy.



ADA389500 
Non-Lethal Weapons: Force Enabler for the Operatonal Commander Conducting Peace Operations 

Descriptive Note: Final rept.
Personal Author(s): Norbut, Gerald W
Report Date: 05 Feb 2001
Media Count: 28   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *PEACETIME, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, MILITARY FORCES(UNITED STATES), THREATS, ARMY PERSONNEL, VULNERABILITY, LETHALITY, MILITARY COMMANDERS
Abstract: (U) Conducting peace operations is a recurring mission of the United States military. To carry out this function, the Task Force Commander must be afforded a wide array of alternative response methods to implement in the field. Since non-lethal weapons can be employed at the lower end of the force continuum, the commander can more rapidly counter evolving threat situations, retain the initiative, and reduce the vulnerability of his soldiers. Without non-lethal weapons, the commander is faced with the uneasy decision of either doing nothing, or killing somebody. Failing to quickly respond could get his forces hurt, while an overly aggressive response using lethal force could forfeit the legitimacy of the operation. Non-lethal weapons offer a critical interim step for the commander to employ before resorting to lethal force. Capable of delivering a varying level of effects, non-lethal weapons response levels can ratchet up or down along the force continuum in direct relationship to the intensity of the perceived threat.



ADA446472 
Crowd Behavior, Crowd Control, and the Use of Non-Lethal Weapons

Personal Author(s): Kenny, John M, McPhail, Clark , Waddington, Peter, Heal, Sid, Ijames, Steve, Farrer, Donald N, Taylor, Jim, Odenthal, Dick
Report Date: 01 Jan 2001
Media Count: 47   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *DECISION MAKING, *COGNITION, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, *BEHAVIOR, POLITICAL SCIENCE, ECONOMICS, SOCIAL SCIENCES, MILITARY LAW, PERSONNEL DETECTORS, EMOTIONS, REACTION(PSYCHOLOGY), LAW ENFORCEMENT, HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING, PREDICTIONS, ATTITUDES(PSYCHOLOGY)
Identifiers: (U) *CROWD CONTROL, *CROWD BEHAVIOR
Abstract: (U) The Human Effects Advisory Panel convened from 12-14 September 2000. Its purpose was to assess crowd behavior and the potential for crowd control. This is a leading core capability sought by the Joint Non-lethal Weapons Program. The need to thoroughly examine crowd behavior grew out of the Panel's previous assessments of non-lethal weapons, which are being designed for crowd control. The following is a summary of the Panel's findings. Military and law enforcement concepts on crowd control are based on stereotypes that have been questioned by social scientists. These scientists have gathered empirical data, indicating that: 1) Crowds are not homogeneous entities all participants are not the same. 2) Crowds are not made up of isolated individuals, but of companion clusters, which arrive, remain and leave together. 3) Crowd participants are not unanimous in motives. 4) Crowd participants do not necessarily assume a sense of anonymity. 5) Crowds are not given to unique emotional displays. 6) Crowd participants seldom act in unison and, if they do, it does not last long. Crowds do not cripple individual cognition. 7) Crowds are more of a process they have a beginning, middle and end. 8) Crowds are not uniquely distinguished by violence. Social, political and economic factors are not consistent predictors of riot intensity. Military and law enforcement must rethink crowd control. New approaches should be based on this empirical evidence as well as the practical experiences of the law enforcement community. Additionally, this information should serve as the basis for new training and decision-making protocols for crowd control.



ADA387566
WSTIAC: Weapon Systems Technology Information Analysis Center. Volume 2, Number 1, January 2001 

Report Date: Jan 2001
Media Count: 12   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *WEAPON SYSTEMS, *PERIODICALS, WEAPONS, METHODOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE, LASER WEAPONS, HIGH ENERGY LASERS, INFORMATION CENTERS, LETHALITY, TECHNICAL INFORMATION CENTERS, NONLETHAL WEAPONS
Identifiers: (U) WSTIAC(WEAPON SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY INFORMATION ANALYSIS CENTER)
Abstract: (U) WSTIAC is a DOD Information Analysis Center sponsored by the Defense Technical Information Center. This journal contains topics which include lethality weapons, smart weapons, non-lethal weapons, and high energy laser weapons.



ADA425528 
War as We Knew It: The Real Revolution in Military Affairs/Understanding Paralysis in Military Operations 

Descriptive Note: Occasional paper no. 19
Personal Author(s): Breemer, Jan S
Report Date: Dec 2000
Media Count: 39   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *WARFARE, *MILITARY STRATEGY, *DESTRUCTION, *TRANSFORMATIONS, *PARALYSIS, *LIMITED WARFARE, NUCLEAR WEAPONS, MOBILITY, MILITARY HISTORY, ATTRITION, ACCURACY, PRECISION, COLD WAR, CASUALTIES, MILITARY MODERNIZATION, MILITARY ART, FIRST WORLD WAR, SECOND WORLD WAR, NONLETHAL WEAPONS
Identifiers: (U) RMA(REVOLUTION IN MILITARY AFFAIRS), *PARALYSIS BASED WARFARE, *DESTRUCTION BASED WARFARE, FUTURE WARS, FUTURE WARFARE, MANEUVER WARFARE, DOMINANT MANEUVER, PRECISION ENGAGEMENT, FULL-DIMENSIONAL PROTECTION, FOCUSED LOGISTICS, CASUALTY MINIMIZATION, CARL VON CLAUSEWITZ, MARTIN VAN CREVELD, NAPOLEON BONAPARTE, FRENCH REVOLUTION, NAPOLEONIC WARS, INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION, TRINITARIAN WAR, PRECISION WEAPONS
Abstract: (U) This paper is an exploration of the nature of war in the future. In particular, it explores the symptoms of what appears to be a transition, in thought and practice, from a way of warfare that is centered on the notion of destruction to one that has paralysis as its center of gravity. The idea that future war will be "paralysis-based" provides a framework for discerning, interpreting, and organizing a collection of seemingly disconnected phenomena. It is not an argument for a kinder and gentler way of war per se. There has been a great deal of discussion inside and outside Washington, DC in recent years about the emergence of a so-called Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA). This transition will not be the product of a deliberate design for a RMA design, but will instead be the outcome of a confluence of seemingly disparate societal, technological, and intellectual transitions, of which the RMA is merely one symptom. This is not new. The prevailing destruction-based model of war did not become fully mature until the eve of World War I, when a series of developments converged. This convergence included the intellectualization of war as a destructive process by Carl von Clausewitz; the Industrial Revolution; the expansion of popular participatory government; the growth of rampant nationalism and attendant cultivation of hatred of outsiders; and the popularity of the social-darwinistic conception of war as a societal re-juvenating necessity. This essay discusses the Clausewitzian roots of the modern destruction-based model of warfare, how the Industrial Revolution enabled the idea of war to be turned into the material reality of two world wars, the effect of nuclear weapons on conventional military thought, how the professional military and civilian defense intelligentsia came to grips with the nuclear anomaly, and how the end of the Cold War has led to a security environment whose characteristics are at odds with the destruction-based model.



ADA385802 
An Assessment of the Effects of Four Acoustic Energy Devices on Animal Behavior 

Descriptive Note: Interim rept. May 1996-Jan 1999
Personal Author(s): Sherry, Clifford F, Cook, Michael C, Brown, G C, Jauchem, James R, Merritt, James H
Report Date: Oct 2000
Media Count: 80   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *ACOUSTIC EQUIPMENT, ACOUSTIC WAVES, INTENSITY, PULSES, ANIMALS, BEHAVIOR, HEARING, AUDIO FREQUENCY, WAVEFORM GENERATORS, NONLETHAL WEAPONS
Identifiers: (U) ACOUSTIC ENERGY, PE62202F, WUAFRL7757B317
Abstract: (U) To determine if narrow-band, high-intensity acoustic energy in the audible frequency range could be used as a non-lethal weapon, four acoustic devices were tested: (a) a compressed-air-driven siren (CADS); (b) a combustion-driven siren (the Dismounted Battlefield Battle Laboratory, or DBBL); (c) an impulsive acoustic device, the Sequential Arc Discharge Acoustic Generator (SADAG); and (d) a complex waveform generator, the Gayl Blaster. The Primate Equilibrium Platform (PEP) is a continuous, compensatory tracking task that measures fine motor control. The CADS significantly impacted the PEP performance of some rhesus monkeys, but the effect was probably due to the substantial air flow created by the siren. The effects of the DBBL siren on goal-directed behavior (panel pressing for food) of goats were both minimal and transient. Exposure to the SADAG failed to significantly impact PEP performance in rhesus monkeys. The SADAG had a marked impact on the operant behavior of swine engaged in a panel-pressing task. The effect, however, could have been mediated by non-acoustic factors such as light and ozone associated with SADAG operation. The Gayl Blaster had no effects on behavior (panel pressing) in goats. In summary, none of the four devices tested would have obvious utility as a non-lethal weapon

ADA378714 
Non-Lethal Weapons in Non-Combatant Evacuation Operations 

Descriptive Note: Master's thesis
Personal Author(s): Kung, Jerry J
Report Date: 15 Jun 2000
Media Count: 157   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *TACTICAL ANALYSIS, *MILITARY TACTICS, *EVACUATION, *NONCOMBATANT, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, FOREIGN POLICY, SCENARIOS, CONTROL, METHODOLOGY, WARFARE, THREATS, MILITARY EQUIPMENT, THESES, INVENTORY, INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS, PERSONNEL DETECTORS
Abstract: (U) This thesis examines the utility of non-lethal weapons for mitigating risks in demanding tactical scenarios, specifically crowd control. Noncombatant evacuation operations (NEOs) are conducted when a host government becomes unstable. A NISO force's failure to manage the potential for local violence against the mission can lead to negative consequences for U.S. foreign policy and international relations. Therefore, the NEO force must control any escalation in the threat level because mission success could be jeopardized. Along with restrictive rules of engagement, these considerations discourage the use of deadly force. Thus, non-lethal weapons have a role in NEOs. One of the challenges in NEOs is crowd control. Crowds have the potential for violence. Left unchecked, they can endanger the NEO mission. This thesis finds that a non-lethal capability is essential for responding to these threats. The thesis' methodology produces a short list of suitable non-lethal crowd control weapons for deployment in NEOs. Finally, the arguments for non-lethality in NEOs can be extended to other operations other than war, thus increasing the utility of non-lethal weapons in the U.S. military inventory.



ADA381634 
The Potential Role of Non-Lethal Weapons in the Maritime Environment

Descriptive Note: Final rept
Personal Author(s): Melampy, Ronald W
Report Date: 16 May 2000
Media Count: 25   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *MILITARY OPERATIONS, *OPERATIONS OTHER THAN WAR, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, MILITARY PERSONNEL, CASUALTIES, PEACEKEEPING
Abstract: (U) The concept of non-lethal weapons has been the subject of increased attention and debate in recent years. The desire to minimize personnel casualties and collateral damage during post-Cold War peacekeeping and humanitarian missions has resulted in focusing development and employment efforts on land-based operations. This paper investigates the potential applicability of non-lethal technologies to operations in the maritime environment, and the possible benefits to be derived from this application to the Joint Force or Maritime Component Commande

ADA397823 
Civil Disturbances. Incorporating Non-Lethal Technology; Tactics, Technique and Procedures 

Descriptive Note: Publication
Report Date: Apr 2000
Media Count: 48   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *MILITARY TACTICS, *CIVIL DISTURBANCES, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, MILITARY PUBLICATIONS, PERIODICALS, NONLETHAL AGENTS, RIOT CONTROL, PEACEKEEPING
Identifiers: (U) AQ I02-04-0630
Abstract: (U) This newsletter addresses new non-lethal weapons that have been developed based on the latest technologies available today and how to apply them at the unit level. Studies dealing with non-lethal weapons and technologies can be grouped into two major categories. The first category includes those studies that are primarily conceptual in nature, such as policies and regulations, and theoretical arguments for and against the integration of non-lethal weapons into U.S. national security strategy. Studies in the second category focus on the scientific and technical aspects of non-lethal technologies. This newsletter attempts to bridge that gap. It documents the tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP) developed by combat forces executing recent peace operations missions. New non-lethal weapons and updated TTP are needed by Army forces to give commanders broader options in applying graduated responses during civil disturbance missions. Non-lethal weapons, TTP, and training provide commanders those options.



ADA377759 
Design and Test of a Prototype Acoustic High-Intensity Infrasonic Test Chamber 

Personal Author(s): Boesch, H E , Jr, Benwell, Bruce T, Reiff, Christian G
Report Date: Apr 2000
Media Count: 38   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *ACOUSTIC RESONATORS, *ACOUSTIC RANGES, MATHEMATICAL MODELS, PROTOTYPES, HIGH INTENSITY, LOW FREQUENCY, FREQUENCY MODULATORS, STANDING WAVES, INFRASONIC RADIATION, HELMHOLTZ EQUATIONS
Identifiers: (U) SINUSOIDAL SOUND, NLAW(NONLETHAL ACOUSTIC WEAPONS), PE62120A
Abstract(U) We describe the conception, design, mathematical modeling, construction, and test of a prototype acoustic test chamber intended to support the performance of high-intensity acoustic target-effects experiments on large targets at infrasonic frequencies. In initial experiments, the test chamber produced continuous sinusoidal sound pressure levels in excess of 140 dB over a frequency range of 5 to 20 Hz within a test volume of 5 m3.



ADA378495 
The Operational Use of Non-Lethal Weapons 

Descriptive Note: Final rept
Personal Author(s): Durkin, Robert T
Report Date: 08 Feb 2000
Media Count: 24   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *TACTICAL WARFARE, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, MILITARY OPERATIONS, MILITARY STRATEGY, MILITARY DOCTRINE, COMBAT READINESS, OPERATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS, CASUALTIES, PUBLIC OPINION, PEACEKEEPING, COLLATERAL DAMAGE
Identifiers: (U) MOUT(MILITARY OPERATIONS IN URBAN TERRAIN)
Abstract: (U) In the Post Cold War era U.S. military operation are becoming increasingly difficult to a societal aversion to the infliction of casualties. This aversion has migrated over time from an aversion to U.S. casualties, to an abhorrence of non-combatant casualties and now includes an aversion to the infliction of casualties on enemy combatants. This has combined with an increase in the complexity in the nature military operations U.S. forces are called upon to undertake. Non-lethal weapons (NLW) , while development is currently focused on tactical level applications, offer the operational commander flexible new tools that can be employed across the spectrum of warfare to achieve operational objectives. Current and emerging technologies offer the promise of allowing NLW to be used at the operational level to impose our will on the enemy while limiting both civilian casualties and collateral damage. This in turn will allow for more rapid war termination and will minimize the instability exacerbated by the destruction associated with conventional warfare. Operational commanders must demand NLW technologies be developed and fielded for use at the operational level. Further, doctrine needs to be developed for their use if confidence is to be established in their effectiveness. With confidence and doctrinal underpinning, NLW can be effectively integrated into the warfighting capabilities of the operational commander for use across the entire spectrum of warfare.



ADA379171 
The Utility of Non-Lethal Weapons in Large-Scale Conflict 

Descriptive Note: Final rept.
Personal Author(s): Barrett, Benjamin K
Report Date: 08 Feb 2000
Media Count: 21   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *WEAPONS, *WARFARE, *LETHALITY, MILITARY FORCES(UNITED STATES), MILITARY OPERATIONS, IMPACT, ACCURACY, COSTS, COMMAND AND CONTROL SYSTEMS, PRECISION, CONFLICT, BUDGETS, GUIDED WEAPONS, INTERNATIONAL LAW, DETERRENCE, NONLETHAL WEAPONS
Abstract: (U) The increasing involvement of United States armed forces in Military Operations Other Than War has intensified calls for weapons that would fill the gap between Flexible Deterrent Options and application of lethal force. The effort and expense required to develop and field these proposed non-lethal weapons requires that their utility throughout the spectrum of conflict be considered. This paper presents an analysis of the positive and negative impacts of non-lethal weapons on three operational functions: (command and control, fires, and intelligence). The possible restrictions current international law would place on the use of these proposed weapons are also discussed. The analysis suggests that non-lethal weapons could create so many difficulties for the operational commander that their utility in large scale conflict would be minimal, and that scarce resources and budgets might be better directed towards increasing the accuracy of current precision-guided weapons.



ADA412615 
Technology Options to Leverage Aerospace Power in Operations Other Than Conventional War. Volume 2: Panel Reports 

Descriptive Note: Technical rept. Jan-Nov 1999
Personal Author(s): McMahan, Jesse, Worch, Peter R, Ganz, Matthew W, Fuchs, Ronald P, Harrison, George B
Report Date: Feb 2000
Media Count: 291   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *OPERATIONS OTHER THAN WAR, MILITARY INTELLIGENCE, PEACETIME, AIR FORCE RESEARCH, SURVEILLANCE, RECONNAISSANCE, AIR FORCE PLANNING, NONCOMBATANT, PEACEKEEPING
Identifiers: (U) OPERATIONS OTHER THAN CONVENTIONAL WAR (OOTCW), INTELLIGENCE, SURVEILLANCE, RECONNAISSANCE, DEPLOYMENT, SUSTAINMENT, NON-LETHAL WEAPONS, LETHAL WEAPONS, COMMAND AND CONTROL, FORCE MANAGEMENT, EXPERIMENTS, EXERCISES, TRAINING
Abstract: (U) The 1999 Air Force Scientific Advisory Board (SAB) Summer Study focused on potential future environments that may involve the Air Force in Operations Other Than Conventional Warfare (OOTCW). The SAB was asked to provide technology options that could leverage the application of aerospace power in such operations.The outcome of the study was a set of technology options to apply aerospace power to fight and win in the increasingly unconventional conflict environment. The team was to look at concepts, ideas and technologies that would allow United States forces to prevail while minimizing the number of airmen and ground troops that would have to be put at risk in OOTCW.The study considered the past and potential future OOTCW environments and considered operations from humanitarian relief (HUMRO), noncombatant evacuation (NEO), peacekeeping, and no-fly zone maintenance, through regional conflict. The upper range of operations for the study, regional conflict, was understood to be just short of the very significant level of conflict encountered in Kosovo. While the study did not in general emphasize the lower-intensity operations (HUMRO and NEO), it did become clear early on that such peacetime operations have significant operational tempo impacts. The study attempted to define these impacts and to offer mitigation ideas.



ADA412621 
Technology Options to Leverage Aerospace Power in Operations Other Than Conventional War. Volume 1: Summary 

Descriptive Note: Technical rept.
Personal Author(s): McMahan, Jesse, Worch, Peter R, Ganz, Matthew W, Fuchs, Ronald P, Harrison, George B
Report Date: Feb 2000
Media Count: 131   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *OPERATIONS OTHER THAN WAR, MILITARY INTELLIGENCE, PEACETIME, INFANTRY, AEROSPACE SYSTEMS, SURVEILLANCE, RECONNAISSANCE, AIR POWER, EVACUATION, NONCOMBATANT, PEACEKEEPING
Identifiers: (U) OPERATIONS OTHER THAN CONVENTIONAL WAR (OOTCW), PEACEKEEPING, INTELLIGENCE, SURVEILLANCE, FORCE MANAGEMENT
Abstract: (U) The 1999 Air Force Scientific Advisory Board (SAB) Summer Study focused on potential future environments that may involve the Air Force in Operations Other Than Conventional Warfare (OOTCW). The SAB was asked to provide technology options that could leverage the application of aerospace power in such operations.The outcome of the study was a set of technology options to apply aerospace power to fight and win in the increasingly unconventional conflict environment. The team was to look at concepts, ideas and technologies that would allow United States forces to prevail while minimizing the number of airmen and ground troops that would have to be put at risk in OOTCW.The study considered the past and potential future OOTCW environments and considered operations from humanitarian relief (HUMRO), noncombatant evacuation (NEO), peacekeeping, and no-fly zone maintenance, through regional conflict. The upper range of operations for the study, regional conflict, was understood to be just short of the very significant level of conflict encountered in Kosovo. While the study did not in general emphasize the lower-intensity operations (HUMRO and NEO), it did become clear early on that such peacetime operations have significant operational tempo impacts. The study attempted to define these impacts and to offer mitigation ideas.


ADA372518 
Vortex Ring Generator: Mechanical Engineering Design for 100-kpsi Operating Pressures 

Descriptive Note: Final rept.
Personal Author(s): Lucey, George K , Jr
Report Date: Jan 2000
Media Count: 52   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *VORTICES, TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER, SAFETY, MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, MACH NUMBER, STATIC PRESSURE, GAS GENERATING SYSTEMS, EXPLOSIVE GASES, VORTEX GENERATORS, JET STREAMS, SUBSONIC NOZZLES, NONLETHAL WEAPONS
Identifiers: (U) EXPLOSIVE GAS GENERATOR, VORTEX RING GENERATORS, CROWD CONTROL, PE62120A
Abstract: (U) This report documents engineering design guidelines used to construct an explosive gas generator (100 kpsi maximum) and an adjustable area ratio (2844 maximum) nozzle. The equipment enables ring vortices to be generated using jet streams with significantly higher Mach numbers than previously reported in the literature. Studies are planned of the risks, limits, and capabilities of ring vortices for nonlethal crowd control applications. The focus is limited to 40-mm weapons, so this report is written to facilitate technology transfer to investigators interested in other applications and launch platforms.




ADA374423 
Non-Lethal Weapons in Noncombatant Evacuation Operations

Personal Author(s): Kung, Jerry J
Report Date: Dec 1999
Media Count: 153   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *EVACUATION, *NONLETHAL AGENTS, *RIOT CONTROL, FOREIGN POLICY, SCENARIOS, CONTROL, METHODOLOGY, WARFARE, THREATS, MILITARY EQUIPMENT, THESES, INVENTORY, TACTICAL ANALYSIS, MILITARY TACTICS, INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS, NONCOMBATANT, PERSONNEL DETECTORS
Identifiers: (U) *NONCOMBATANT EVACUATION OPERATIONS
Abstract: (U) This thesis examines the utility of non-lethal weapons for mitigating risks in demanding tactical scenarios, specifically crowd control. Noncombatant evacuation operations (NEOs) are conducted when a host government becomes unstable. A NEO force's failure to manage the potential for local violence against the mission can lead to negative consequences for U.S. foreign policy and international relations. Therefore, the NEO force must control any escalation in the threat level because mission success could be jeopardized. Along with restrictive rules of engagement these considerations discourage the use of deadly force. Thus, non-lethal weapons have a role in NEOs. One of the challenges in NEOs is crowd control. Crowds have the potential for violence. Left unchecked, they can endanger the NEO mission. This thesis finds that a non-lethal capability is essential for responding to these threats. The thesis' methodology produces a short list of suitable non-lethal crowd control weapons for deployment in NEOs. Finally, the arguments for non-lethality in NEOs can be extended to other operations other than war, thus increasing the utility of non-lethal weapons in the U.S. military inventory.




ADA367625 
Joint Doctrine for Nonlethal Weapons 

Descriptive Note: Master's thesis 7 Aug 98-4 Jun 99,
Personal Author(s): Perry, Joseph M
Report Date: 04 Jun 1999
Media Count: 114   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *COMBAT EFFECTIVENESS, *MILITARY DOCTRINE, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, MILITARY REQUIREMENTS, MILITARY STRATEGY, COMBAT READINESS, THESES, THREAT EVALUATION, JOINT MILITARY ACTIVITIES
Abstract: (U) This study investigates whether the armed forces of the United States need joint doctrine for nonlethal weapons. The U.S. Department of Defense is gradually increasing its commitment of fiscal and manpower resources to the development of nonlethal technology; however, published information that provides guidance on how and under what conditions to employ the technology is scarce. In particular, joint doctrine for nonlethal weapons has not been developed. Joint doctrine is only one of several methods that can be used to provide operational commanders with guidance on the employment of an emerging technology. This study, therefore, focuses on identifying the optimum method for enhancing the combat effectiveness of U.S. military forces. Using a descriptive and qualitative analysis approach, the study examines the purpose and functions of joint doctrine; the capabilities provided by nonlethal technology in support of national military objectives; and the current status of published information relating to the operational employment of nonlethal weapons. The study concludes that joint doctrine for nonlethal weapons, by addressing a critical warfighting void, will improve the combat effectiveness of U.S. military forces. The study recommends that the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff publish this doctrine by 2003 and proposes specific topics to be included.



ADA370659 
Operational Planning Considerations for the Deployment of Nonlethal Weapons: A Commander's Guide 

Descriptive Note: Final rept.,
Personal Author(s): Pasco, Jonathan T
Report Date: 17 May 1999
Media Count: 25   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *MILITARY OPERATIONS, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, WEAPONS, DEPLOYMENT, MILITARY STRATEGY, BATTLEFIELDS, TERRAIN, PLANNING, LETHALITY, ORDNANCE, CONTAMINATION, MILITARY PLANNING
Abstract: (U) Nonlethal weapons (NLW) will have great utility for the JTF-level commander by providing the capability to preempt conflict, separate belligerents, isolate non-combatants from combatants, shape the battlefield, minimize collateral damage, deny an enemy the use of supplies, materiel and terrain, neutralize WMD without spreading contamination, and by enhancing the effects of lethal weapons. But with this enhanced capability comes a more complex decision making obligation for the operational commander. He/she must analyze the appropriateness of NLW use and be confident that their use will reduce tension, not escalate it. The legal, social, political and environmental ramifications of their use must be well-understood and measured against the inherent uncertainties of conflict and the impact that unintended consequences may have on the greater military or political objectives of the operation.

ADA370723 
Replacing the Antipersonnel Landmine in the Force Protection Role 

Descriptive Note: Final rept.,
Personal Author(s): Sprowls, Lance P
Report Date: 17 May 1999
Media Count: 23   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *REPLACEMENT, *LAND MINES, *ANTIPERSONNEL AMMUNITION, MILITARY FORCES(FOREIGN), MILITARY DOCTRINE, MINEFIELDS, PUBLIC SAFETY, NONLETHAL WEAPONS
Identifiers: (U) *APL(ANTIPERSONNEL LANDMINES)
Abstract: (U) Although FM 20-32 prescribes protective minefields to "provide the defender with close-in protection during the enemy's final assault, the U.S. military will soon be banned from using antipersonnel landmines (APL) meet this force protection role. The magnitude of human suffering resulting from landmines has caused the world humanitarian and diplomatic communities to join forces in September 1997 to produce the Ottawa Convention, a treaty that bans all APLs, to include self-destructing devices. That same month, the President directed DoD to develop antipersonnel landmine alternatives, to include mixed anti-tank systems, for use outside Korea by 2003 and for the Korean Theater by 2006. If this is achieved, the United States will then sign the Ottawa Convention. Lead for this effort fell to the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology (USD(A&T)). Based on preliminary research, the Under Secretary issued a 1997 report focused on integrating technology, combat forces, and military doctrine. The concept was that any lethal APL alternatives would incorporate real-time surveillance, precise firepower to immediately suppress enemy forces, and "man-in-the-loop" command and control Systems to cue engagement. Given the DoD interest in nonlethal weapons, it is only natural that this technology would also be among the options examined to satisfy the force protection role historically played by the APL. The die has been cast. Early in the 21th century, high-tech nonlethal and man-in-the-loop defensive weapon systems will fill the limited remnants of the 20th century antipersonnel landmine force protection role not made obsolete by operational doctrine and precision, standoff weapons.



ADA370617 
Non-Lethal Weapons in Conventional Combat Operations: Leveraging Capabilities or Violating the Rules of War? 

Descriptive Note: Final rept
Personal Author(s): Callihan, W M
Report Date: 17 May 1999
Media Count: 19   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, MILITARY OPERATIONS, CONVENTIONAL WARFARE, OPERATIONS OTHER THAN WAR
Abstract: (U) NLW technologies hold great promise for revolutionizing conventional combat operations. Faced with scenarios involving the intermingling of the levels of war and problems associated with identifying combatants and non-combatants, non-lethal technologies could provide the operational commander with a full range of weaponry and more balanced options for applying force. While leaps in non-lethal technology provided expanded opportunity for weapons development, this same factor caused weaponization to supercede policy development and implementation. A political environment bounded by the Rules of War and numerous international treaties and Conventions places further development at risk to legal, moral, and ethical roadblocks. This situation complicates all aspects of non-lethal technology: R & D, policy formulation, operational concepts development, and procurement. Although not all the issues have immediate solutions, there are steps that policy makers can take in the areas of international law, policy, and NLW development to expedite their acceptance.




ADA370695 
Non-Lethal Weapons: A Place in the Tool Bag 

Descriptive Note: Final rept
Personal Author(s): Costello, John M
Report Date: 17 May 1999
Media Count: 20   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, MILITARY OPERATIONS, MILITARY PLANNING
Abstract: (U) In Today's changing world, the military is facing challenges and missions that require different solutions and approaches. The one size fits all philosophy, does not necessarily work in a world where it is sometimes hard to distinguish the non-belligerents from the belligerents. In this era of uncertain and confusing conflict, non-lethal weapons technology offers the military and political leaders an option between doing nothing and using deadly force. They are not the solution or panacea to all problems and crises in the twenty-first century. They are an option and enhance capabilities. Their utility is the subject of much debate because of the concerns they raise with rules of engagement, risk, legal, and ethical issues. These concerns notwithstanding, non-lethal weapons have value in today's and tomorrow's military operations. They are tools that can provide a synergistic effect when used by the operational commander in conjunction with traditional forces and weapons. They are not stand-alone technology that will supplant the lethal technologies of today, but an augmenting and enabling force.




ADA422024 
A Supervised Autonomous Security Response Robot 

Personal Author(s): Ciccimaro, Donny A, Everett, H R, Bruch, Michael H, Phillips, Clifton B
Report Date: Apr 1999
Media Count: 18   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *ROBOTS, THERMAL PROPERTIES, MOVING TARGETS, POSITION FINDING, SELF OPERATION, AUTONOMOUS NAVIGATION, INTRUSION DETECTION, AUTOMATIC TRACKING, MOTION DETECTORS
Abstract: (U) Autonomous mobile robots typically require a preconceived and very detailed navigational model (map) of their intended operating environment, but most law enforcement and urban warfare response scenarios preclude the availability of such a priori information. ROBART III is an advanced demonstration platform for non-lethal robotic response measures, incorporating a supervised autonomous navigation system specifically configured to support minimally attended operation in previously unexplored interior structures. A "human-centered mapping" strategy has been developed to ensure valid first-time interpretation of navigational landmarks as the robot builds its world model. The accuracy of the robot's real-time position estimation (and hence the model itself) is significantly enhanced by an innovative algorithm which exploits a heuristic that assumes the majority of man-made structures are characterized by parallel and orthogonal walls. Intruder detection and assessment capabilities are supported by intelligent fusion of data collected by a multitude of various sensors. Initial detection is by a 360-degree array of eight passive-infrared motion detectors responding to the thermal energy gradient created by a moving human target, with partial validation from a Doppler microwave motion detector. The robot's head-mounted sensors (and non-lethal weapon system) are then panned to the center of any perceived disturbance for further assessment. Automatic tracking of any confirmed movement is accomplished through conventional image processing using a black-and-white video surveillance camera equipped with a near-infrared illuminator for low-light conditions.



ADA363126 
Non-Lethal Operational Fires in Military Operations Other Than War 

Descriptive Note: Final rept.
Personal Author(s): Gould, Michael J
Report Date: 05 Feb 1999
Media Count: 20   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *FIRES, *OPERATIONS OTHER THAN WAR, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, ELECTRONIC WARFARE, OPERATIONAL READINESS, INFORMATION WARFARE
Identifiers: (U) MOOTW(MILITARY OPERATIONS OTHER THAN WAR), OPERATIONAL FIRES, ROE(RULES OF ENGAGEMENT), PSYOPS(PSYCHOLOGICAL OPERATIONS), JOINT FIRES
Abstract: (U) Operational planing today must further develop the use of fires in military operations other than war (MOOTW). Factors such as emerging technologies in information operations and the difficulties of MOOTW planning make non-lethal operational fires the weapons of choice to achieve the operational objectives in an environment restrained by ROE, purpose and scope. The capabilities of non-lethal fires are manifested through PSYOPS, Information Warfare (IW), Military deception, and Electronic Warfare (EW).



ADA363094
Planning Factors for Non Lethal Weapons in Counter Narcotic Operations 

Descriptive Note: Final rept.
Personal Author(s): Meese, William R
Report Date: 05 Feb 1999
Media Count: 25   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *INTERDICTION, *COAST GUARD OPERATIONS, *NARCOTICS, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, OPERATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS, HELICOPTERS, COUNTERMEASURES, CUTTERS(VESSELS)
Identifiers: (U) MARITIME ROUTES
Abstract: (U) The Coast Guard is investigating avenues to leverage technology to improve interdiction effectiveness. This is necessary since there is little likelihood for increased funding for additional interdiction resources to stem the flow of drugs via the maritime routes. One alternative, currently under development by the U.S. Marine Corps, is the deployment of non lethal weapons technology aboard Coast Guard helicopters and cutters to compel unwilling suspect vessels to stop. The introduction of non lethal weapons into the Coast Guard inventory will prompt the operational commander to plan for their use. The operational commander should become knowledgeable about non lethal weapons capabilities, limitations, and legal issues (including rules of engagement), will have to adjust operational command and control, and will probably redesign the task organization to improve effectiveness. Non lethal weapons will safely improve interdiction rates by adding more alternatives for tactical units to stop vessels at sea without having to resort to deadly force.



ADA363076 
Non-Lethal Weapons: Applications in Maritime Interdiction Operations 

Descriptive Note: Final rept.
Personal Author(s): Henderson, Mark D
Report Date: 05 Feb 1999
Media Count: 23   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *INTERDICTION, *COAST GUARD OPERATIONS, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, MILITARY OPERATIONS
Identifiers: (U) MOOTW(MILITARY OPERATIONS OTHER THAN WAR), MARITIME INTERDICTION OPERATIONS, MIO(MARITIME INTERCEPTION OPERATIONS), EMBARGO, SANCTIONS
Abstract: (U) Economic sanctions and embargo are long accepted means of coercion used to guide the actions of nation states. Numerous historical examples with varying degrees of success indicate that Maritime Interception Operations (MIO) are a necessary part of sanction and embargo enforcement. With the line between war and peace becoming increasingly vague, U.S. forces face a growing number of operations which require the controlled application of force, and among these are MIO. Restraint, born of moral and ethical considerations, coupled with the need to maintain public support for military action, has brought a growing emphasis on the development and employment of non-lethal weapons (NLW). These weapons bridge the gap between presence with the threat of force and the application of deadly force. Non-lethal weapons offer key advantages to the Operational Commander which warrant their consideration in the planning and execution of any military mission. As a measure between force and no force, NLW are ideally suited to missions between peace and war. When applied with rules of engagement which are clear, concise, and mission appropriate, NLW provide increased flexibility and enhanced mission effectiveness to forces conducting MIO.




ADA363056
NonLethal Weapons, NonLethal Policy, and Complex Contingencies 

Descriptive Note: Final rept.
Personal Author(s): Sheldon, Rex D
Report Date: 05 Feb 1999
Media Count: 32   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *BATTLE MANAGEMENT, *OPERATIONS OTHER THAN WAR, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, MILITARY STRATEGY, MILITARY DOCTRINE, COMBAT READINESS, COMMAND AND CONTROL SYSTEMS, MILITARY TACTICS, MILITARY ART
Abstract: (U) Advocates promote NonLethal Weapons (NLWs) use in a complex contingency as a way to enforce U.S. with an absolute minimum of violence and destruction. They believe that NLWs will offer the operational commander a rheostatic means of applying force that will exactly and precisely and benignly compel the opponents to either cooperate or face incapacitation. However, the environment of a complex contingency is a nonlinear, chaotic, and highly interactive place. The commander will find the operational landscape inhabited by noncombatants and fighters, women and children, and friend and foe alike, all of whom will repeatedly engage with his forces at different times, levels, and ways. NLWs will introduce another element of uncertainty into this environment, malting the outcome even less predictable. A robust NonLethal Policy incorporates and integrates all the assets available to the operational commander, including nonlethal and lethal force. Instead of relying mainly on technologies, a policy of minimal casualties (or a NonLethal Policy) will more likely capture the commander's intent, as well as offer an operational level tool to achieve the political goals. One way to appropriately devise a NonLethal Policy lies with reviewing NLWs in light of the Six Principles of Military Operations Other Than War (MOOTW), and then proceeding to answer the Four Questions of the operational commander's mission analysis.



ADA360135
Injury Evaluation Techniques for Non-Lethal Kinetic Energy Munitions 

Descriptive Note: Final ept. Oct 97-Feb 98
Personal Author(s): Lyon, David H, Bir, Cynthia A, Patton, Brendan J
Report Date: Jan 1999
Media Count: 26   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *KINETIC ENERGY, *AMMUNITION, *WOUNDS AND INJURIES, TEST AND EVALUATION, IMPACT, PROJECTILES, BLUNT BODIES, TRAUMA, NONLETHAL WEAPONS
Identifiers: (U) NONPENETRATING IMPACT
Abstract: (U) Numerous types of nonpenetrating kinetic energy (KE) munitions have been developed and deployed throughout both the military and law-enforcement communities. The ability to evaluate the injury potential associated with this class of munitions has presented itself as a novel problem for the scientific community. Although several evaluation methods have been employed, currently, there is no widely accepted method for evaluating injury levels resulting from blunt impact derived from non-lethal projectiles. This paper briefly reviews two existing experimental techniques in addition to introducing a third. Data obtained from each of these procedures were collected for similar impacts and are offered for comparison.


ADA427581 
Non-Lethal Weaponry: From Tactical to Strategic Applications 

Descriptive Note: Journal article
Personal Author(s): Herbert, Dennis B
Report Date: Jan 1999
Media Count: 6   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *TACTICAL WARFARE, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, MILITARY OPERATIONS, STRATEGIC ANALYSIS, MILITARY PUBLICATIONS
Abstract: (U) Non-lethal weapons are evolving. To date they have been seen as applicable on the tactical level in military operations other than war. The demand for them will increase and spread across the conflict spectrum. A new class of non-lethal technology is also emerging that will have more direct applications on the operational and strategic levels. This evolution will depend on research to ensure that these weapons comply with political, legal, and ethical considerations.



ADA364497 An Automated Security Response Robot
Personal Author(s): Ciccimaro, D A, Everett, H R, Gilbreath, G A, Tan, T T
Report Date: Nov 1998
Media Count: 14   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *AUTOMATION, *ROBOTS, *INTRUSION DETECTION, *TELEOPERATORS, WEAPONS, ALGORITHMS, HIGH POWER, SCENARIOS, CONTROL SYSTEMS, DETECTORS, DEMONSTRATIONS, SECURITY, STRUCTURES, MOTION, MOVING TARGETS, TRACKING, LIGHT SOURCES, PLATFORMS, RESPONSE, INTERNAL, WEAPON CONTROL, CAMERAS, MANMADE, WALLS, AUTONOMOUS NAVIGATION, MAPPING, PARALLEL ORIENTATION, OPERATORS(PERSONNEL), OPTICAL DETECTORS, ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERTERS, VIDEO SIGNALS, ONBOARD, SONAR, REMOTE CONTROL, LAW ENFORCEMENT, ORTHOGONALITY, INTRUSION, SUPERVISION, AUTOMATIC TRACKING, STROBOSCOPES, URBAN WARFARE, PROXIMITY DEVICES
Identifiers: (U) ROBART III, PE603228D
Abstract: (U) ROBART III is intended as an advanced demonstration platform for non-lethal response measures, extending the concepts of reflexive teleoperation into the realm of coordinated weapons control (i.e., sensor-aided control of mobility, camera, and weapon functions) in law enforcement and urban warfare scenarios. A rich mix of ultrasonic and optical proximity and range sensors facilitates remote operation in unstructured and unexplored buildings with minimal operator supervision. Autonomous navigation and mapping of interior spaces is significantly enhanced by an innovative algorithm which exploits the fact that the majority of man-made structures are characterized by (but not limited to) parallel and orthogonal walls. Extremely robust intruder detection and assessment capabilities are achieved through intelligent fusion of a multitude of inputs from various onboard motion sensors. Intruder detection is addressed by a 360-degree staring array of passive-infrared motion detectors, augmented by a number of positionable head-mounted sensors (i.e., sonar, microwave, video). Automatic camera tracking of a moving target is accomplished using a video line digitizer. Non-lethal response systems include a six-barreled pneumatically-powered Gatling gun, high-powered strobe lights, and three ear-piercing 103-decibel sirens. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of ROBART III's supervised autonomous navigation, intruder tracking, and non-lethal weapon and control systems.


ADA404786
Multiservice Procedures for the Tactical Employment of Nonlethal Weapons (NLW) 

Report Date: Oct 1998
Media Count: 93   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *TACTICAL WARFARE, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, DEPLOYMENT, LESSONS LEARNED, TRAINING, THREATS, INTEROPERABILITY, MILITARY CAPABILITIES, LETHALITY
Abstract: (U) No longer can force be viewed as either on or off (lethal force or no force) because whole spectrums of threats are present today. NLWs' options allow force to be viewed as a continuum. Much like a rheostat switch where power can be dialed up or down as desired, NLW provide tools to allow a commander to employ sufficient force to accomplish an objective without requiring the destruction of an enemy or the habitat. The intent of employing NLW is not to add another step in the progression of escalation with an adversary but to add another tool to use anywhere along that continuum. This publication provides initial guidance for the employment of NLW in a tactical environment.


ADA352294 
New Weapons Provide Alternative for Marines Dealing with Non-Combatants 

Personal Author(s): Bortz, Jason J
Report Date: 28 Aug 1998
Media Count: 4   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *ANTIPERSONNEL AMMUNITION, *NONCOMBATANT, DAMAGE ASSESSMENT, LETHALITY, DIRECTED ENERGY WEAPONS, AMMUNITION DAMAGE
Identifiers: (U) AQ I98-11-2350
Abstract: (U) Non-lethal weapons, such as acoustic and directed energy weapons, can provide Marines with an alternative way to deal with noncombatants in a way that can reduce injuries and fatalities on both sides, and still accomplish set objectives and missions. Some of the non-lethal weapons being looked at are 12 gauge shotgun shells that have a bean bag inside of it. The round can be fired from a standard 12 gauge shotgun and is not intended to cause any permanent damage or fatality to a person. There is an epoxy mix that comes in a plastic bag that dries in several minutes and can seal doors. A 40mm foam rubber tipped round that can be fired from a M203 and can knock an average size man down. Another item being looked at is a directed energy weapon that uses low frequency sound waves that can knock a person out but causes no permanent damage.


ADA351449 
Biological Effects of Non-Lethal Weapons: Issues and Solutions 

Personal Author(s): Murphy, Michael R
Report Date: 18 Aug 1998
Media Count: 8   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *WEAPONS EFFECTS, *NONLETHAL AGENTS, REQUIREMENTS, UNITED STATES, DAMAGE, CASUALTIES, WOUNDS AND INJURIES, LETHALITY, RESPONSE(BIOLOGY), DEATH, DETERRENCE, PEACEKEEPING
Identifiers: (U) NLW(NONLETHAL WEAPONS), BIOEFFECTS.
Abstract: (U) Military peace keeping, humanitarian efforts, and missions other-than-war have become increasingly common. In such operations, many dangers exist to the troops, yet the use of lethal force is often not justified or acceptable. This conference in concerned with new non-lethal options for applying military force. This new requirement has been addressed by the United States Department of Defense in a policy statement for Non-Lethal Weapons (NLWs), in which such weapons are defined as weapon systems explicitly designed to incapacitate personnel or materiel while minimizing fatalities, permanent injury, and undesired damage to property and the environment (DoD Policy Directive 3000.3). The development and fielding of new weapons that fit this definition will require much work using many approaches. I will focus on the biological effects of NLWs.


ADA359030 
Military Use of Non Lethal Weapons. Evaluation Framework 

Descriptive Note: Final rept
Personal Author(s): Paulissen, J J
Report Date: Aug 1998
Media Count: 40   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, TEST AND EVALUATION, RISK, WEAPON SYSTEMS, TARGETS, BOUNDARIES, USER NEEDS, LETHALITY, LETHAL AGENTS
Identifiers: (U) FOREIGN REPORTS
Abstract: (U) Of late, the defence community is interested in the potential of Non-Lethal Weapons (NLW). As a result, there is a need for a methodology in which several non-lethal and lethal weapon systems can be assessed. In this report a framework for such a methodology is given. To determine the potential there must be a balance between the weapon system, the target system and the way both take action. A desired level of activity is found by means of a top-down' assessment. The actual activity is found through a bottom-up' approach. The choice for the right level of evaluation is essential in order to relate to the needs of the operational user. The employability of an NLW is determined by the area between the minimal required effectiveness and the maximum acceptable risk. Furthermore this area is limited by some boundary conditions.


ADA351107 
Training Analysis and Feedback Aids (TAAF Aids) Study for Live Training Support 

Descriptive Note: Final rept. 10 Feb-30 Sep 97
Personal Author(s): Brown, Bill R, Nordyke, John W, Gerlock, Derick L, Begley II, Ira J, Meliza, Larry L
Report Date: Jul 1998
Media Count: 285   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *INSTRUCTORS, *MILITARY TRAINING, OBSERVERS, TEACHING METHODS, FEEDBACK, WORKLOAD, LEARNING, COMBAT FORCES, SMART TECHNOLOGY
Identifiers: (U) INTRINSIC FEEDBACK, *COMBAT TRAINING CENTERS, DIGITIZATION OF THE BATTLEFIELD, TES(TACTICAL ENGAGEMENT SIMULATION), ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY, WORKLOAD REDUCTION, PE65803A
Abstract: (U) Maneuver Combat Training Center (CTC) and home station requirements for exercise control and training feedback are intensive. With the advent of battlefield digitization; tactical decision aids; "smart, intelligent, and brilliant" munitions; advances in non-lethal weapons, and new reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition (RSTA) systems, the workload for trainers continues to spiral. Force modernization is creating new control and feedback tasks that have the potential to rob trainers of time they would otherwise spend observing, coaching, and facilitating the learning of exercise players. This study: (1) Identifies the impact of force modernization on future exercise control and training feedback functions. (2) Identifies tasks involved in after-action review (AAR) preparation, observer/controller (OC) coordination and mentoring, and take-home package construction. (3) Provides strategies to reduce OC and Training Analysis Facility (TAF) workload. (4) Identifies payoffs in task reduction achieved by each strategy. (5) Does not provide technical solutions or analysis of task criticality, complexity, duration, or frequency for trainer tasks.



ADA351805 
Rules of Engagement for Non-Lethal Weapons 

Descriptive Note: Final rept.
Personal Author(s): Douglass, MIchael W
Report Date: 18 May 1998
Media Count: 29   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *MILITARY OPERATIONS, *OPERATIONS OTHER THAN WAR, RISK, DECISION MAKING, PEACETIME, TEAMS(PERSONNEL), SPECTRA, LETHALITY, LINKAGES, MILITARY TACTICS, MATRIX THEORY
Abstract: (U) Non-lethal weapons have changed the nature of force options available to U.S. commanders. Where there used to be only two options; no force and lethal force, now there has developed a continuum' where force can be matched in proportionality to an enemy's action. This force continuum has necessitated a change in Rules of Engagement (ROE)) in order that they consider the new issues associated with non-lethal weapons, as well as the integration of lethal with non-lethal force in Military Operations Other Than War (MOOTW) and war. Issues for non-lethal weapons are grouped into five broad categories; risk' humanitarian, political, objective, and legal. Within these categories there are many elements that must be explored and considered in developing ROE. Two recent proposals include dedicated peacetime ROE training and construction of a decision matrix that matches action with appropriate response. But because non-lethal weapons are so inextricably linked to lethal weapons, the ROE must allow them both to work as a complementary team in the force continuum and apply across the spectrum from MOOTW to war. What is needed now, is a merging of the proposed ROE training and decision matrix concepts, appropriately tailored to apply across the spectrum of weapons and situations, while considering the many issues involved.

ADA345882 
U.S. Policy and the Uncertain State of Military Usage of Riot Control Agents 

Personal Author(s): Brinn, Rufus T
Report Date: 30 Apr 1998
Media Count: 51   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, *RIOT CONTROL AGENTS, UNCERTAINTY, GLOBAL, TRAINING, GROWTH(GENERAL), CASUALTIES, INTERNATIONAL, MILITARY PLANNING, URBAN AREAS, PEACEKEEPING
Abstract: (U) The U.S. military's international role includes the prospect of a continuing variety of operations other than war. Recent history tells us that to be considered successful such operations must not only meet political objectives, but must also unfailingly protect friendly forces while minimizing casualties among all parties. This paper examines the immediate and future requirement for effective non-lethal weapons, particularly chemical riot control agents (RCA), to deal with the full scope of peacekeeping requirements. It also states the need for resolution of the current uncertainty regarding U.S. RCA policy and the necessity for RCA doctrine and training to address the challenges of operations within the world's growing number of urban areas.



ADA341112 
The Strategic Implications of the Use of Nonlethal Force

Descriptive Note: Research rept.,
Personal Author(s): Page, Clyde A
Report Date: 15 Apr 1998
Media Count: 50   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *MILITARY STRATEGY, *NATIONAL DEFENSE, *NONLETHAL AGENTS, UNITED STATES, POLICIES, UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT, MILITARY APPLICATIONS, RESOURCES, POWER, TREATIES
Abstract: (U) The national defense strategy of the United States is based on the premises of shaping the environment, responding to existing threats and preparing for the future. Nonlethal technologies can influence all these requirements. Like most nations, America uses its diplomatic, informational, military and economic resources to affect national policy. Nonlethal technologies can impact all the elements of national power, not just the military ones. This paper will examine emerging nonlethal technologies as well as those currently available. It examines the moral and legal implications of using nonlethal weapons, as well as potential conflicts with existing American treaties. It will examine the issue of nonlethal weapons changing the essence of military force. Finally, it will address the question of the long term uses these instruments will have in U.S. national policy.



ADA363670 
U.S. Military Intervention and the Role of Nonlethal Weapons 

Descriptive Note: Strategy research project
Personal Author(s): McNabb, Richard B
Report Date: 07 Apr 1998
Media Count: 35   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *INTERVENTION, *OPERATIONS OTHER THAN WAR, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, MILITARY DOCTRINE, MILITARY CAPABILITIES, MILITARY PLANNING, INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
Abstract: (U) Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the world has experienced increasing numbers of conflicts and the ever present problems with natural crises. The U.S. finds itself at a crossroads with no peer military competitor on the horizon. The likelihood of U.S. military involvement in interventions abroad is likely. The U.S. military must take the initiative and develop the policies, equipment and training to effectively execute this mission. Nonlethal weapons provide an opportunity to enhance the military's capability to further U.S. national interests. Public opinion in this information revolution age can significantly impact our government's position on foreign affairs. Nonlethal weapons have both their advantages and risks and these need to be thoroughly analyzed. America should take the lead in the development and application of nonlethal weapons to better apply its military element of national power.


ADA398830 
Non-Lethal Weaponry: A Framework for Future Integration 

Descriptive Note: Thesis
Personal Author(s): Thomas, Mark R
Report Date: Apr 1998
Media Count: 61   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *MILITARY STRATEGY, MILITARY OPERATIONS, WARFARE, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE, POLICIES, THESES, FEASIBILITY STUDIES, LETHALITY, NONLETHAL WEAPONS
Abstract: (U) Consideration of non-lethality and non-lethal weapons by the Department of Defense as an expression of military power is a relatively new yet growing phenomenon. This report explores four issues germane to non-lethal concepts and technologies in the DOD and makes recommendations derived from those issues concerning the integration of nonlethal weaponry into future United States military operations. The approach taken in the research centers on a modified content analysis of unclassified materials published between 1990 and 1997 related to non-lethality and non-lethal weapons. The genesis of non-lethality in the DOD has been convoluted, involving multiple actors struggling over the definition of non-lethality along with scattered operational experiences and the erratic development of policies and technologies. Four motives now drive DOD non-lethality: A changing threat; the need for more response options; the desire to reduce lethality, and force protection. Non-lethality scenarios span the spectrum of conflict and the traditional levels of war, while the suitability criteria for non-lethals include technical feasibility, operational utility, policy acceptability and safety. Coherent, substantiated, decisive and appropriate actions must be taken to ensure the transformation of non-lethality into an integrated component of US armed capability. These efforts require a multitude of actors engaged in policymaking, legislative, doctrinal, architectural and acquisition initiatives drawn from the history, motives, scenarios and criteria associated with non-lethality in the Department of Defense.


ADA337698
Non-Lethal Defense III, Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Maryland, February 25 & 26, 1998, Revised Agenda

Descriptive Note: Proceedings,
Personal Author(s): Alexander, John B
Report Date: 26 Feb 1998
Media Count: 428   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *LASER APPLICATIONS, *KINETIC ENERGY PROJECTILES, *DIRECTED ENERGY WEAPONS, *NONLETHAL AGENTS, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE, SYMPOSIA, OFF THE SHELF EQUIPMENT, EYE SAFETY, LETHALITY, LASER SAFETY, LAW ENFORCEMENT, GRENADES, ANTIPERSONNEL MINES, VORTEX GENERATORS, GRENADE LAUNCHERS, LETHAL AGENTS, OPTICAL AUGMENTATION
Identifiers: (U) *NON-LETHAL WEAPONS, PROCEEDINGS
Abstract: (U) Partial contents include: (1) Non-Lethal Weapons and the Warfighter; (2) Department of Defense Non-Lethal Weapons Policy; (3) Courting the Law Enforcement Technology Market; (4) The Missing Tools Are Off the Shelf; (5) A Non-Lethal Alternative to Anti-Personnel Land Mines; (6) Developments in Non-Lethal Payloads for 12-Gauge Shotguns and 40mm Grenade Launchers; (7) Expanded Use for the 66mm Grenade Family; (8) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Non-Lethal Payload (NL) Delivery System; (9) Assessing the Blunt Trauma Potential of Free Flying Projectiles for Development and Safety Certification on Non-Lethal Kinetic Energy Weapons; (10) Vortex Ring Generator; (11) Combustion Acoustics; (12) A High-Power Electrically-Driven Impulsive Acoustic Source for Target Effects Experiments and Area-Denial Applications; (13) Development of the Liquid Projectile Weapon; (14) The Development of Blast-Actuated Impact Munitions, Special Purpose Low Lethality Anti-Terrorist Munitions; (15) High Energy Toroidal Vortex for Overlapping Civilian Law Enforcement and Military Police Operations; (16) Officer Hand Launcher: OHL5 Overview; (17) Laser Dazzler; (18) Next-Generation Diversionary Devices; (18) Eye-Safe Laser Illuminators as Non-Lethal Weapons; (19) Injury Risk Assessment of Single Target and Area Fire Less Lethal Munitions; (20) Injury Evaluation Techniques of Non-Lethal Kinetic Energy Munitions.


ADA348576 
Filling an Operational Requirement: The Nonlethal Approach

Descriptive Note: Final rept.,
Personal Author(s): Van Williams, Terry
Report Date: 13 Feb 1998
Media Count: 29   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *MILITARY COMMANDERS, MILITARY REQUIREMENTS, UNITED STATES, BATTLEFIELDS, SHAPE, PROTECTION, LAND MINES, MINE WARFARE, NONLETHAL AGENTS
Abstract: (U) Pressures generated as a result of the growing worldwide concern over the use of conventional landmines forced the United States to severely limit their use. At the same time, the operational commander continues to have a need to shape the battlefield and protect his forces, a need currently filled by the conventional landmine. This paper examines the roll that nonlethal technologies can play in filling the battlefield shaping and force protection requirements. It will show that not only can nonlethal weapons replace the conventional landmine, but that they will give the operational commander options never before possible, so revolutionary that they will change the entire mine warfare paradigm. This paper looks at emerging nonlethal technologies and how they can meet the old requirements and the newly generated battlefield shaping and force protection requirements. It looks at their employment options, highlighting the new options and what they do for the operational commander. The paper then looks to the future to see where and how these assets fit in Joint Vision 2010. Finally, it looks at the key legal and ethical concerns associated with the employment of these new assets.


ADA348361
Non-Lethal Weapons and Conventional War: Facing the Commander's Issues and Dilemmas

Descriptive Note: Final rept.
Personal Author(s): Bass, Harold C
Report Date: 13 Feb 1998
Media Count: 21   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *OPERATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS, *MILITARY PLANNING, *UNCONVENTIONAL WEAPONS, MILITARY OPERATIONS, WARFARE, POLICIES, RISK, CONVENTIONAL WARFARE, JOINT MILITARY ACTIVITIES, LETHALITY, WEAPONS EFFECTS, ADVANCED WEAPONS
Identifiers: (U) *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, TECHNOLOGY, RULES OF ENGAGEMENT
Abstract: (U) Although the usefulness of non-lethal weapons during Military Operations Other Than War and in enhancing lethal weapons' use is widely recognized, future political and public expectations may change current policies regarding the use of non-lethal force. This paper explores the potential issues and dilemmas that future commanders who possess a substantial non-lethal capability may face during conventional war.


ADA348809 
Nonlethal Weapons: Impact and Utility Concerns for Operational Commanders in Future Conflicts

Descriptive Note: Final rept.,
Personal Author(s): Garland, Kyle E
Report Date: 13 Feb 1998
Media Count: 22   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *MILITARY STRATEGY, *JOINT MILITARY ACTIVITIES, *OPERATIONS OTHER THAN WAR, WEAPONS, WARFARE, UNITED STATES, NATIONAL SECURITY, PEACETIME, OPERATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS, CASUALTIES, TREATIES, INCAPACITATION, NONLETHAL AGENTS
Identifiers: (U) *NONLETHAL WEAPONS
Abstract: (U) The role of today's military in future conflict is far from certain. Rapid changes and instability in the world's political arena may thrust our military into a wide spectrum of conflicts at a moments notice. In order to meet this ever-present challenge, the United States military must constantly be prepared for any crisis. From peace operations to war, the U.S. armed forces represent the instrument of power that must never lose. The coalition military success in The Gulf War set the standard for future conflicts. The media portrayed a high-tech military capable of decisively defeating an able opponent in record time with few casualties. Unfortunately, the next conflict may not be so accommodating and the carnage of war could once again return to American living rooms. One avenue to avoid this, to attempt victory without fighting, is nonlethal weapons. The role of nonlethal weapons in future conflicts is likely to increase on a continuous basis. Political and moral benefits, limited destruction, and the American public desire to avoid war casualties, will force increased development and employment of weapons that avoid killing. These weapons will offer the operational commander-in-chief(CINC) additional flexibility, thereby enhancing military effectiveness, in both war and operationS other than war. The ultimate goal is to achieve victory, impose our will, or maintain the peace with as few American casualties as possible. Nonlethal weapons cannot, however, be considered a panacea to cure the destruction caused by war. Many problems exist in the international community concerning their use. Current laws and treaties, possible negative impact on operational effectiveness, and ethical issues prohibit the employment of many non-lethal weapons. Additionally, some so-called non-lethal weapons may still result in death or permanent disability to their victims if used indiscriminately or incorrectly.


ADA345532
Emerging Nonlethal Weapons Technology and Strategic Policy Implications for 21st Century Warfare

Descriptive Note: Research project,
Personal Author(s): Lamb, Timothy J
Report Date: 12 Feb 1998
Media Count: 42   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *WEAPONS, *POLICIES, *NONLETHAL AGENTS, MILITARY FORCES(UNITED STATES), MILITARY OPERATIONS, WARFARE, MILITARY STRATEGY, OPERATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS, SPECTRA, MILITARY CAPABILITIES, LETHALITY, TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT
Abstract: (U) While technological advances continue to provide U.S. forces with decided advantages over potential adversaries, emerging nonlethal weapons technologies promise to provide additional military options to policy makers and commanders which were heretofore unthinkable, providing a strategic advantage to U.S. forces well into the 21st century. The potential impacts emerging nonlethal weapons technologies will have on strategic policy for future military operations are immense. These weapons possess the potential to carve out an intermediate position on the use of force spectrum that lies juxtaposed between no use of force and the use of lethal force. Nonlethal weapons present the Unlted States with a potential strategic flexibility no nation has possessed in the past, but is increasingly possible due to developments in nonlethal technologies.



ADA351876
Battlefield Optical Surveillance System (BOSS) - A HMMWV Mounted System for Non-Lethal Point Defense

Personal Author(s): Cooley, W T, Davis, Trevor, Kelly, John
Report Date: Jan 1998
Media Count: 9   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *MOUNTS, *SURVEILLANCE, COUPLING(INTERACTION), HIGH POWER, YAG LASERS, MILITARY FORCES(UNITED STATES), SCENARIOS, CONTROL, OPTICS, FIBERS, GLOBAL, BATTLEFIELDS, COMBAT SURVEILLANCE, SITES, SEMICONDUCTOR LASERS, LASERS, MISSIONS, OPERATION, SHIELDING, CONFLICT, MOTIVATION, NEAR INFRARED RADIATION, GREEN(COLOR), PEACEKEEPING
Identifiers: (U) BOSS(BATTLEFIELD OPTICAL SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM)
Abstract: (U) As the United States Armed Forces are increasingly asked to control world conflict through humanitarian and peacekeeping missions, non-lethal alternatives for applying force have spurred technologist to identify new methods for engaging potential adversaries. One promising technology comes from advancements in high power (1 to 10 watts) semiconductor lasers, lead by the United States Air Force Research Laboratory, Phillips Research Site. Semiconductor lasers have been fabricated to produce "high power" over the wavelength range 650 - 1550 nm for a variety of applications. The use of semiconductor lasers to illuminate potential adversaries was field tested during operation United Shield in Somalia in 1995. This deployment demonstrated two prototype visible illuminators - the Saber 203, and a diode-pumped, doubled Nd:YAG green laser, in addition to a fiber coupled near infrared (IR) illuminator system. The success of using semiconductor lasers as nonlethal weapons to detect, designate, and deter is the impetus for the Battlefield Optical Surveillance System (BOSS). This paper will present motivation for laser illumination systems, describe the BOSS in detail, present a notional operation scenario, provide laser eye-safety considerations and discuss the tested capability of the BOSS.


ADA359487 
Naval Law Review, Volume 45 

Personal Author(s): Duncan, James C, Scott, Roger C, McClain, Ronald S, Stephens, Dale
Report Date: Jan 1998
Media Count: 291   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *NAVAL RESEARCH, *MILITARY PUBLICATIONS, *PERIODICALS, *MILITARY LAW, WARFARE, DEFENSE SYSTEMS, HUMANS, NAVY, MILITARY APPLICATIONS, TARGETING, TELECOMMUNICATIONS, INTERNATIONAL, UNITED NATIONS, MILITARY TACTICS, LAW ENFORCEMENT, INTERNATIONAL LAW, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, HAITI
Abstract: (U) CONTENTS: A Primer on the Employment of Non-Lethal Weapons; Legal Aspects of information Warfare: Military Disruption of Telecommunications; The Coastal Fishing Vessel Exemption from Capture and Targeting: An Example and Analysis of the Origin and Evolution of Customary International Law; Rules of Engagement and the Concept of Unit Self Defense; Life and Human Dignity, The Birthright of all Human Beings; Rethinking International Self-Defense: The United Nations Emerging Role; International Law Regarding Pro-Democratic Intervention: A Study of the Dominican Republic and Haiti; The Defense Institute for International Legal Studies; 'Neither Confirm nor Deny" At Sea Still Alive and Consistent with International Law; Remarks of Mr. Vladmir V. Grachev.


ADA351547
Extended Range Less Lethal Stand-Off Capabilities: A 66mm Stingball Grenade 
Personal Author(s): DuBay, David K
Report Date: Jan 1998
Media Count: 9   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *GRENADES, *ANTIPERSONNEL WEAPONS, STANDOFF, ARMY PERSONNEL, RUBBER, SAFETY, AREA DENIAL
Identifiers: (U) *LESS LETHAL WEAPONS, *RUBBER PELLETS, *66MM STINGBALL GRENADE, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS, EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE.
Abstract: (U) A deficiency has been identified in the ability for U.S. soldiers, in the role of peacekeepers, to keep unarmed combatants at a safe stand-off distance. While these individuals may be unarmed, the threat that they pose steadily increases as their distance decreases. The ability to maintain a safe-zone or stand-off distance in a less lethal manner is the intended outcome. In order to accomplish this task, a method to move and or rout these individuals, while promoting area denial, is needed. This paper presents a less lethal, extended range stand-off using existing materials and weapon platforms. Materials were obtained from the L8 Smoke Grenade and used to test a 66mm Stingball and/or an Aerial Distraction Device. This 66mm Stingball consists of a five and a half inch rubber body that contains rubber balls and an explosive charge tube. Upon detonation, the rubber body splits and the rubber balls are dispersed in roughly a 360 deg pattern. The sound report of this explosion is sufficient to be classified as a distraction device. This combined effect is a useful tool in dispersing crowds in a less lethal manner while providing the stand-off needed to ensure the safety of the soldiers, and in doings so, the safety of the combatants as well.


ADA351650 
A Scenario Based Methodology for the Selection of Non-Lethal Weapons 

Report Date: Jan 1998
Media Count: 6   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *WEAPON SYSTEM EFFECTIVENESS, *PEACEKEEPING, SCENARIOS, MILITARY OPERATIONS, SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, ENVIRONMENTAL TESTS, LIFE CYCLE COSTS, TRADE OFF ANALYSIS, RIOT CONTROL
Identifiers: (U) *NONLETHAL WEAPONS.
Abstract: (U) The allocation of finite resources to develop non-lethal weapons for deployment as effective military assets is a difficult task considering that there exists a myriad of potentially promising technologies. Each proposed weapon has operational, logistical, and developmental advantages and disadvantages, which often do not appear self-consistent. Attempts to invent a common figure-of-merit often fail because it is difficult to avoid subjective criteria and evaluation. Ideally, an objective, consistent weapons selection methodology is required. We have developed a scenario based requirements methodology that allows us to highlight inter-scenario commonalties among the weapons considered. We have evaluated some thirty different anti-personnel and anti-material weapons considering over a dozen scenario based requirements including such criteria as effective range, weather susceptibility, cost, logistics and training. A selection matrix considering a requirement weight factor within a given scenario (e.g. MOUT, riot control) and performance comparison allows us to define overall weapon effectiveness within the context of the given scenario. Surprisingly, this scenario based analysis allows for an objective consensus evaluation of seemingly dissimilar weapons systems. This system engineering approach commences with a functional decomposition of non-lethal capability and includes many subsystems, components, parts, and their tactical interactions. We seek to look for a complete solution, a solution that involves logistics, weapons suite, TTP (Tactics, Training & Procedures), C(4)ISR, and life cycle cost. System engineering emphasizes integration from the beginning; thus avoiding stovepipes and sub-optimization.


ADA351448 
Non-Lethal Weapons Activities at ICT 

Personal Author(s): Thiel, Klaus-Dieter
Report Date: Jan 1998
Media Count: 31   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *WEAPONS EFFECTS, *NONLETHAL AGENTS, VIBRATION, POLYMERS, OPERATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS, PARTICLES, PRESSURE, GERMANY, SOLVENTS, LETHALITY, DETERRENCE, INFRASOUND
Identifiers: (U) NLW(NONLETHAL WEAPONS), FOREIGN REPORTS, AQ I98-11-2283
Abstract: (U) The German definition of Nonlethal Weapons is a technical means whose intention is to obviate (prevent or stop) hostile operations without causing death or lasting injury to human beings. In addition, secondary effects caused by the use of those means to innocent people, property, and environment shall be minimized.


ADA351523 
Innovation in Non-Lethal Weapon Technology

Personal Author(s): Logman, Cameron
Report Date: Jan 1998
Media Count: 8   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *NONLETHAL AGENTS, AEROSOLS, CHEMICAL AGENTS, MILITARY APPLICATIONS, WOUNDS AND INJURIES, SPRAYS, LAW ENFORCEMENT, POLICE, PERSONNEL DETECTORS, TEAR GAS, PEACEKEEPING
Identifiers: (U) *CAP-STUN, *NONLETHAL WEAPONS.
Abstract: (U) ZARC is the founder of Oleoresin Capsicum (0C Pepper Agent) non-lethal weapon technology. This proprietary OC technology is currently packaged in an aerosol form under the recognized brandname CAP-STUN, the very first pepper spray on the market developed for law enforcement and military application. ZARO's client list includes more than three thousand state and local law enforcement agencies as well as the US Air Force, FBI, US Marshals Service, Drug Enforcement Administration, US Park Police. Secret Service and other US federal agencies. This paper will provide an overview of the current existing CAP-STUN products and also furnish a brief description of a technological leap being undertaken at ZARC, in order to develop systems for use by modern military. Law enforcement and miltary have come to rely CAP-STUN because it provides: instantaneous control over violent or emotionally disturbed subjects, immediate impact on those under the influence of narcotics or alcohol, effective crowd control, the reduction of escalation to higher levels 


ADA351056 
Vortex Ring Generator 

Personal Author(s): Lucey, George, Jasper, Louis
Report Date: Jan 1998
Media Count: 7   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *TERMINAL BALLISTICS, *VORTEX GENERATORS, *GRENADE LAUNCHERS, ARMY RESEARCH, KINETIC ENERGY, LETHALITY, BLAST, RETROFITTING, IMPACT FLASH
Identifiers: (U) *NONLETHAL WEAPONS
Abstract: (U) The U.S. Marine Corps Joint Nonlethal Weapons Directorate tasked the U.S. Army to demonstrate a means of quickly converting the Navy MK19-3 automatic 40-mm grenade launcher between lethal and nonlethal modes of operation. The Army Research Laboratory (ARL) teamed with the Armament Research and Development Engineering Center (ARDEC) to demonstrate a kit for retrofitting to the weapons already stockpiled by all services. The kit enables the weapon to apply flash, concussion, vortex ring impacts, marker dyes, and malodorous pulses onto a target at frequencies approaching the resonance of human body parts. Two goals are to provide a demonstration to the U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command in 1998 and to transition from technology base research to PM Small Arms development in 2000. This paper describes the concepts proposed for nonlethal crowd control, gaps in technology that inhibit fielding, and proposed approaches to resolution. Organizations in government, industry, or academe with common interests and active vortex ring programs are encouraged to coordinate with ARL to share resources and avoid duplication of effort.



ADA351134 
Developments in Non-Lethal Payloads for 12-Gauge Shotguns and 40mm Grenade Launchers 

Personal Author(s): Kelly, Roy
Report Date: Jan 1998
Media Count: 6   Page(s)
Descriptors: (U) *ARMY PERSONNEL, *ORDNANCE, *SHOTGUNS, *GRENADE LAUNCHERS, WEAPONS, PROJECTILES, LETHALITY, INFANTRY PERSONNEL, PEACEKEEPING
Identifiers: (U) *NON-LETHAL PAYLOADS, 12-GAUGE SHOTGUNS, 40 MM GRENADE LAUNCHERS.
Abstract: (U) The increasing trend towards US soldiers being engaged in peacekeeping operations has inevitably focused attention on the need to provide the infantryman with a wider range of non-lethal munitions to supplement existing lethal ordnance. Although non-lethal (perhaps better described as less lethal) ordnance is still in its infancy, non-lethal ordnance items have now been fielded, or are in development, in all the major gun calibers available to the infantryman; including 5.56mm, 7.62mm, 12-gauge and 40mm grenade launchers. In this context, 12-gauge shotguns and 40mm high and low velocity grenade launchers (MK19 and M203/M79 respectively) are probably the most versatile weapons for infantrymen to launch non-lethal ordnance from a standoff position. One reason for this is the wide range of distances that can be covered by 12-gauge and 40mm ordnance, another being the relatively large volume, particularly in 40mm projectiles, for incorporating non-lethal payloads.

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