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Saturday, November 5, 2011

There are so many victims in this world







LANDMARKS IN VICTIMS’ RIGHTS AND SERVICES

CRIME VICTIMS’ RIGHTS IN AMERICA: 
AN HISTORICAL OVERVIEW 
Each year, National Crime Victims’ Rights Week provides 
communities across the United States with a unique op-
portunity to contribute to reshaping the future for victims 
of crime—by raising awareness about crime-victim issues, 
by identifying and reaching out to victims who need our 
help, and by thinking anew about how to help individuals 
and communities harmed by crime. This annual observance 
also reminds us that, by honoring the past, we stand on the 
shoulders of those who led our nation’s struggle to secure 
basic rights, protections, and services for crime victims. 
“Landmarks in Victims’ Rights and Services” illustrates 
just how far we have come—from 1965 to the present—by 
highlighting significant federal and state laws, the growth of 
national and community victim service organizations, the 
release of groundbreaking reports, and the development of 
victim assistance approaches that have expanded the na-
tion’s capacity to help victims rebuild their lives.
As you make your plans for 2011 National Crime 
Victims’ Rights Week, draw on this information-packed 
resource to underscore how the victim services community 
continues its dedication to reshaping the future while hon-
oring the past. Use this historical overview to inform your 
speeches, media interviews, public service announcements, 
op-ed columns, and any other outreach efforts during 
National Crime Victims’ Rights Week and throughout the 
year.

Key Federal Victims’ Rights Legislation 
1974 Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act 
1980 Parental Kidnapping Prevention Act 
1982 Victim and Witness Protection Act 
1982 Missing Children’s Act 
1984 Victims of Crime Act 
1984 Justice Assistance Act 
1984 Missing Children’s Assistance Act 
1984 Family Violence Prevention and Services Act 
1985 Children’s Justice Act 
1988 Drunk Driving Prevention Act 
1990 Hate Crime Statistics Act 
1990 Victims of Child Abuse Act 
1990 Victims’ Rights and Restitution Act 
1990 National Child Search Assistance Act 
1992 Battered Women’s Testimony Act 
1993 Child Sexual Abuse Registry Act 
1994 Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act 
1994 Violence Against Women Act 
1996 Community Notification Act (“Megan’s Law”) 
1996 Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act 
1996 Mandatory Victims’ Restitution Act 
1997 Victims’ Rights Clarification Act 
1998 Crime Victims with Disabilities Act 
1998 Identity Theft and Deterrence Act 
2000 Trafficking Victims Protection Act 
2001 Air Transportation Safety and System Stabilization Act 
(established September 11th Victim Compensation Fund) 
2003 PROTECT Act (“Amber Alert” law) 
2003 Prison Rape Elimination Act 
2003 Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act2004 Justice for All Act, including Title I The Scott Campbell, 
Stephanie Roper, Wendy Preston, Louarna Gillis, and 
Nila Lynn Crime Victims’ Rights Act2006 Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act 
2010 Tribal Law and Order Act


…for EVENTS are as much the parents of the future 
as they were the children of the past.”
~JOHN GALSWORTHY, SAINT’S PROGRESS (1919)

1965 
• The first crime victim compensation program is estab-
lished in California. 
• By 1970, five additional compensa tion programs are cre-
ated in New York, Hawaii, Massachusetts, Maryland, and 
the U.S. Virgin Islands. 
1972 
• The first three victim assistance programs are established: 
» Aid for Victims of Crime in St. Louis, Missouri. 
» Bay Area Women Against Rape in San Francisco, 
California. 
» D.C. Rape Crisis Center in Washing ton, DC.
1973 
• The results of the first annual National Crime Victim-
ization Survey are released. The survey, commis sioned 
by the President’s Commis sion on Law Enforcement 
and the Administration of Justice, asks U.S. household 
members about their exposure to crime. It is intended 
to complement the FBI’s annual compilation of crimes 
reported to law enforcement agencies. 
1974 
• The Law Enforcement Assistance Administration 
(LEAA) funds the first victim/witness programs in the 
Brooklyn and Milwaukee District Attorneys’ offices and 
seven other offices through a grant given to the National 
District Attorneys Association to establish model as-
sistance programs for victims, encourage victim coopera-
tion, and improve prosecution. 
• The first law enforcement -based victim assistance pro-
grams are established in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, and 
Indianapolis, Indiana. 

• Congress passes the Child Abuse Prevention and Treat-
ment Act, which establishes the National Center on 
Child Abuse and Neglect. The new Center establishes 
an information clearinghouse and provides technical as-
sistance and model programs. 
1975 
• The first “Victims’ Rights Week” is organized by the 
Philadelphia District Attorney. 
• Citizen activists from across the country unite to expand 
victim services and increase recognition of victims’ rights 
through the formation of the National Organization for 
Victim Assistance (NOVA). 
1976 
• The National Organization for Women forms a task 
force to examine the problem of battering. It calls for re-
search into the problem, along with money for battered 
women’s shelters. 
• The first national conference on battered women is 
sponsored by the Milwaukee Task Force on Women in 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 
• In Fresno County, California, Chief Probation Officer 
James Rowland creates the first victim impact statement 
to provide the judiciary with an objective inventory of 
victim injuries and losses at sentencing. 
• The first hotline for battered women is started by Wom-
en’s Advocates in St. Paul, Minnesota. 
• Women’s Advocates and Haven House in Pasadena, Cali-
fornia, establish the first shelters for battered women. 
• Nebraska and Wisconsin become the first states to abol-
ish the marital rape exemption. 


1977 
• The National Association of Crime Victim Compensa-
tion Boards is established by the existing 22 state victim 
compensation programs to foster a nationwide network 
of compensation programs. 
• Oregon becomes the first state to enact a mandatory ar-
rest law in domestic violence cases. 
1978 
• The National Coalition Against Sexual Assault is formed 
to combat sexual violence and promote services for rape 
victims. 
• The National Coalition Against Domestic Violence 
(NCADV) is organized as a voice for the battered 
women’s movement on a national level. 
• Parents Of Murdered Children, Inc. (POMC), a self -
help support group, is founded in Cincinnati, Ohio. 
• Minnesota becomes the first state to allow probable 
cause (warrant less) arrests in cases of domestic assault, 
regardless of whether a protection order has been issued. 
1979 
• Frank G. Carrington founds the Crime Victims’ Legal 
Advocacy Institute, Inc., to promote the rights of crime 
victims in the civil and criminal justice systems. The 
nonprofit organization is renamed VALOR, the Victims’ 
Assistance Legal Organization, in 1981. 
• The Office on Domestic Violence is established in the 
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services but is 
later closed in 1981. 
• The World Society of Victimology is formed to promote 
research relating to crime victims and victim assistance, 
advocate for victims’ interests, and advance cooperation 
of international, regional, and local agencies concerned 
with crime victims’ issues. 
1980 
• Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) is founded 
after the death of 13- year- old Cari Lightner, who was 
killed by a repeat drunk -dri ving offender. The first two 
MADD chapters are established in Sacra mento, Califor-
nia, and Annapolis, Maryland. 

• Congress passes the Parental Kidnapping Prevention Act 
of 1980. 
• Wisconsin passes the first “Crime Victims’ Bill of 
Rights.” 
• The First National Day of Unity is established in Octo-
ber by NCADV to mourn battered women who have 
died, celebrate women who have survived the violence, 
and honor all who have worked to end domestic vio-
lence. 
• The first Victim Impact Panel is sponsored by Remove 
Intoxicated Drivers (RID) in Oswego County, New 
York. 
1981 
• President Ronald Reagan proclaims the first “National 
Victims’ Rights Week” in April. 
• The abduction and murder of six -year- old Adam Walsh 
prompt a national campaign to raise public awareness 
about missing children and enact laws to better protect 
children. 
• The Attorney General’s Task Force on Violent Crime 
recommends that a separate national task force be cre-
ated to examine victims’ issues. 
1982 
• In a Rose Garden ceremony, President Reagan appoints 
members of the Task Force on Victims of Crime, which 
holds public hearings in six cities across the nation to 
focus attention on the needs of crime victims. The Task 
Force’s Final Report offers 68 recommendations that 
become the framework for the advancement of new 
programs and policies. Its final recommendation, to 
amend the Sixth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution 
to guarantee that “…the victim, in every criminal pros-
ecution, shall have the right to be present and to be heard 
at all critical stages of judicial proceed ings…” becomes a 
vital source of new energy to secure state victims’ rights 
constitutional amendments. 
• The Victim and Witness Protection Act of 1982 brings 
“fair treatment standards” to victims and witnesses in the 
federal criminal justice system. 
• California becomes the first state to amend its constitu-
tion to address the interests of crime victims by establish-
ing a constitutional right to victim restitution

STATISTICAL OVERVIEWS

CRIME VICTIMIZATION IN THE 
UNITED STATES: STATISTICAL OVERVIEWSNumbers do matter, especially when it comes to under-
standing and responding for the realities of crime victimiza-
tion. Crime victimization statistics allow people to see a 
crime not as a singular event, but as a rippling disturbance 
with often far-reaching consequences to individuals, fami-
lies, and entire communities. That’s why, every year, we up-
date the Statistical Overviews in this section of the National 
Crime Victims’ Rights Week Resource Guide with the most 
current data available. These overviews can be used through-
out the year as handouts for community awareness projects, 
in presentations to elected officials and policymakers, as 
part of an awareness campaign’s media pitch, and to remind 
crime victims that they are not alone in their experience.
INTERPRETING CRIME STATISTICSCrime in the United States is largely measured by two 
federal research programs administered by the U.S. Depart-
ment of Justice: the National Crime Victimization Survey 
(NCVS), conducted by the Bureau of Justice Statistics 
(BJS); and the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR), conducted 
by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). The NCVS 
and UCR use different methodologies and focus on some-
what different aspects of crime. Both federal research pro-
grams cover a similar subset of serious crimes, however, and 
use similar definitions for some of these crimes. 
The National Crime Victimization Survey, the na-
tion’s primary source of information on criminal victim-
ization, is an annual study of a nationally representative, 
randomly selected sample of residential addresses through-
out the nation. Each year, the NCVS interviews roughly 
100,000 individuals ages 12 and older in about 49,000 
households. BJS uses the survey results to estimate the 
likelihood of victimization by rape/sexual assault, robbery, 
assault, theft, household burglary, and motor vehicle theft 
for the population as a whole, as well as for segments of the 
population such as women, the elderly, members of various 
racial groups, city dwellers, or other groups. The NCVS 

also includes detailed information about the characteristics 
of the victims, the crime incidents, whether the crime was 
reported to police, why the crime was or was not reported, 
the impact of crimes, and the characteristics of violent of-
fenders. The NCVS does not break down results to the state 
or local level. 
The Uniform Crime Reports are based upon local 
police statistics collected annually by the FBI. This survey 
covers murder, which is not measured by the NCVS, as 
well as commercial crimes such as robberies and burglar-
ies, which cannot be measured in a household survey. The 
UCR reports crimes under two categories: Part I (murder 
and nonnegligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, 
aggravated assault, burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle 
theft, and arson) and Part II (simple assault, curfew offens-
es, embezzlement, forgery and counterfeiting, disorderly 
conduct, and a number of other crimes). Because the UCR 
is compiled from local police data, it provides information 
on crime rates at the city, county, and state level. The UCR 
covers only crimes reported to police—just under half of all 
crimes. Also, if multiple crimes are reported in one criminal 
incident, the UCR counts only the most serious crime (as 
defined by criteria set by the UCR program). 

What’s Inside• Overview of Crime and 
Victimization• Campus Crime• Child Victimization• Cost of Crime• Disabilities and 
Victimization• Domestic/Intimate Partner 
Violence• Drunk and Drugged Driving• Elder Victimization• Hate and Bias Crime 
Victimization• Homicide• Human Trafficking

• Identity Theft and Financial 
Crime• Internet Victimization• Mental Health 
Consequences of Crime• School Crime and 
Victimization• Sexual Violence• Stalking• Substance Abuse and Crime 
Victimization• Teen Victimization• Terrorism• Workplace Violence• Youth Exposure to Violence


Overview of Crime and Victimization

In 2009, 20 million crimes were committed in the United States; 
of these, 4.3 million were violent and 15.6 million were property 
crimes.1About half (49 percent) of violent crimes and 40 percent of property crimes were reported to the police.2In 2009, youth ages 12 to 24 had the highest rate of victimiza-
tion.3During a one-year period, 60.6 percent of children and youth 
from birth to 17 years of age experienced at least one direct or 
indirect (as a witness) victimization.4Almost half (46.3 percent) of children and youth from birth to 
17 years of age experienced a physical assault, one in four (24.6 
percent) a property offense, 1 in 10 (10.2 percent) child maltreat-
ment, and 6.1 percent a sexual victimization.5An estimated 15,241 persons were murdered nationwide in 2009,
a 7.3 percent decline from 2008.6Of female murder victims in 2009, 35 percent were killed by an 
intimate partner.7During 2009, 121,613 persons over the age of 65 were victims of 
violent crime.8In 2009, nearly 11 million adults became victims of identity 
fraud, up from 10 million in 2008.9In 2009, victims ages 12 or older experienced a total of 125,910 
rapes or sexual assaults.10 
In 2008, 7,783 hate crime incidents were reported to the Federal 
Bureau of Investigation by local law enforcement agencies.11 
The most comprehensive comorbidity study to date showed that 
lifetime prevalence of other psychological disorders in male and 
female crime victims with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTDS) 

is 88 and 79 percent, respectively. The most common comorbid 
disorders are depression, substance abuse, and phobia.12In 2009, 90,957 crimes were reported to police on the college 
and university campuses that report to the Uniform Crime Re-
port; 97 percent were property crimes, and three percent violent 
crimes.13In 2009, 10,999 terrorist attacks occurred, resulting in 14,971 
deaths, 32,664 wounded, and 10,507 people taken hostage.14 
According to the U.S. Department of State, there are 12.3 million 
adults and children in forced labor, bonded labor, and forced 
prostitution around the world.15In 2009, violent crimes by intimate partners (current or former 
spouse, boyfriend or girlfriend) accounted for 26 percent of non-
fatal violent crimes against females and 5 percent against males.16In 2008, there were 11,773 alcohol-impaired driving fatalities (32 
percent of all traffic fatalities) involving a driver with a blood-
alcohol content (BAC) of .08 or greater, a decline of nearly 10 
percent from 2007.17 
During a one-year period, 3.4 million people ages 18 or older in 
the United States were stalked.18 
In the first half of 2010, spyware infections prompted 617,000 
U.S. households to replace their computers. One out of every 11 
households surveyed had a major problem due to spyware, with 
damages totaling $1.2 billion.19 
In 2009, 521 workplace homicides occurred in the United States 
accounting for 12 percent of all workplace fatalities.20 

Victim compensation programs distributed $478 million in 
2009. This amount is an increase over the $453 million paid in 
2007 and $444 million paid in 2006.21
1 Bureau of Justice Statistics, “Criminal Victimization, 2009,” (Washington, DC: U.S. 
Department of Justice, 2010), 1, http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/pdf/cv09.pdf 
(accessed November 3, 2010).
2 Ibid.
3 Ibid., Table 5, 7.4 David Finkelhor et al, “Violence, Abuse, and Crime Exposure in a 
National Sample of Children and Youth,” Pediatrics 124, no. 5 (2009): 
3, http://www.sp2.upenn.edu/fieldctr/current_issues/documents/
ViolenceAbuseandCrimeExposureinaNationalSampleofChildrenandYouth.pdf 
(accessed September 23, 2010).
5 Ibid.
6 Federal Bureau of Investigation, “Crime in the United States, 2009: Murder,” 
(Washington, DC: GPO, 2010), http://www2.fbi.gov/ucr/cius2009/offenses/violent_
crime/murder_homicide.html (accessed October 28, 2010).
7 Federal Bureau of Investigation, “Crime in the United States, 2009: Expanded 
Homicide Data,” (Washington, DC: GPO, 2010), calculated from Tables 2 and 10, http://
www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/crime-in-the-u.s/2009 (accessed October 18, 2010).
8 Data extrapolated from Bureau of Justice Statistics, “Criminal Victimization, 2009,” 
Table 5, (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice), http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/
content/pub/pdf/cv09.pdf (accessed October 26, 2010).
9 Javelin Strategy and Research, “2010 Identity Fraud Survey Report: Consumer 
Version,” (Pleasanton, CA: Javelin, 2010), 5, https://www.javelinstrategy.com/uploads/files/1004.R_2010IdentityFraudSurveyConsumer.pdf (accessed August 13, 2010).
10 Bureau of Justice Statistics, “Criminal Victimization, 2009,” (Washington, DC: U.S. 
Department of Justice, 2010), Table 1, http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/pdf/cv09.
pdf (accessed October 26, 2010).
11 Federal Bureau of Investigation, “Hate Crime Statistics, 2008,” (Washington, DC: GPO, 
2009), Table 1, http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/ucr/hate-crime/2008 (accessed 
October 6, 2010).

12 Dean G. Kilpatrick and Ron Acierno, “Mental Health Needs of Crime Victims: 
Epidemiology and Outcomes,” Journal of Traumatic Stress 16 (2003): 129, http://www.
nctsnet.org/nctsn_assets/articles/65.pdf (accessed August 26, 2010).
13 Data calculated from the Federal Bureau of Investigation, “Crime in the United States, 
2009, Table 9,” (Washington, DC: GPO, 2010), http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/cius2009/
data/documents/09tbl09.xls (accessed September 22, 2010). Note: Only about 570 
campuses (many of which are public colleges and universities) report to the Uniform 
Crime Report. 
14 National Counterterrorism Center, “2009 Report on Terrorism,” (Washington, DC: GPO, 
2010), 9, 13, 14, http://www.nctc.gov/witsbanner/docs/2009_report_on_terrorism.pdf 
(accessed October 7, 2010).
15 U.S. Department of State, “Trafficking in Persons Report: 10th Edition,” (Washington, 
DC: GPO, 2010), 7, http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/142979.pdf 
(accessed November 12, 2010).
16 Bureau of Justice Statistics, “Criminal Victimization, 2009,” (Washington, DC: U.S. 
Department of Justice, 2010), 7, http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/pdf/cv09.pdf 
(accessed October 28, 2010).
17 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, “Traffic Safety Facts: Alcohol Impaired 
Driving,” (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Transportation, 2010), 1, http://www-
nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/Pubs/811155.PDF (accessed September 10, 2010).
18 Katrina Baum, Shannan Catalano, Michael Rand, and Kristina Rose, “Stalking 
Victimization in the United States,” (Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, 
2009), 1, calculated from data on p. 2, http://www.ovw.usdoj.gov/docs/stalking-
victimization.pdf (accessed October 6, 2010).
19 Consumer Reports, “State of the Net, 2010,” http://www.consumerreports.org/cro/
magazine-archive/2010/june/electronics-computers/social-insecurity/state-of-the-
net-2010/index.htm (accessed August 25, 2010).
20 Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries Summary, 2009,” 
(Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor, 2010), 7, http://www.bls.gov/news.release/
pdf/cfoi.pdf (accessed September 28, 2010).
21 National Association of Crime Victim Compensation Boards, “Facts About Crime 
Victim Compensation,” (Alexandria, VA: NACVCB, 2009), http://www.nacvcb.org 
(accessed September 28, 2010).


Campus Crime


In 2009, 90,957 crimes were reported to police on the college 
and university campuses that report to the Uniform Crime Re-
port; 97 percent were property crimes, and three percent violent 
crimes.1Of the violent crimes reported on college campuses, 1,419 (53 
percent) were aggravated assaults, 796 (30 percent) were robber-
ies, 459 (17 percent) were forcible rapes, and eight (0.3 percent) 
were murder or non-negligent manslaughter.2Theft was the most prevalent form of property crime, with 
74,809 incidents (accounting for 85 percent of property crime), 
followed by 11,363 burglaries (13 percent), 2,197 motor vehicle 
thefts (two percent), and 353 incidents of arson (0.4 percent).3An estimated 12 percent of women attending American colleges 
have been raped, and 12 percent of rapes of college women were 
reported to law enforcement.4Fourteen percent of undergraduate women were victims of at 
least one completed sexual assault since entering college; five per-
cent were victims of forced sexual assault, and eight percent were 
sexually assaulted while they were incapacitated due to voluntary 
use of alcohol or drugs.5Sixteen percent of victims of forcible assaults, and eight percent 
of incapacitated victims, sought help from a crisis, health, or 
victims’ center after they were sexually assaulted.6 
Thirteen percent of victims of forcible assaults, and two percent 
of victims of assaults while incapacitated, reported their assault to 
a law enforcement agency (municipal, local, or city police or 911; 
campus police or security; county sheriff; state police; or other 
police).7In a national study on violent victimization among college stu-
dents ages 18 to 24 from 1995 to 2002, this group experienced 
violence at average annual rates lower than those for non-students 
in the same age group.8

The same study found that about 4 in 10 violent crimes against 
college students were committed by offenders who were per-
ceived by victims to be using drugs or alcohol.9 
This study found that male college students were twice as likely to 
be victims of overall violence than female students.10This study also found that white college students had somewhat 
higher rates of violent victimization than black students, and 
higher rates than students of other races.11College students who were victims of rape or sexual assault were 
about four times more likely to be victimized by someone they 
knew than by a stranger.12About 8 in 10 robberies of college students were committed by 
strangers, compared to about 6 in 10 assaults and 2 in 10 rapes or 
sexual assaults.13About 35 percent of violent victimizations against college stu-
dents were reported to the police.14Most crimes against students (93 percent) occurred off campus; 
of those, 72 percent occurred at night.15In 2006, reported crimes occurring in on-campus residence halls 
included 1,923 forcible sex offenses, 975 aggravated assaults, and 
22 non-forcible sex offenses.16Hate and bias crimes reported on school and college campuses 
made up 12 percent of all hate and bias crimes reported in the 
United States in 2007.17

1 Data calculated from the Federal Bureau of Investigation, “Crime in the United States, 
2009, Table 9,” (Washington, DC: GPO, 2010), http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/cius2009/
data/documents/09tbl09.xls (accessed September 22, 2010). Note: Only about 570 
campuses (many of which are public colleges and universities) report to the Uniform 
Crime Report. 
2 Ibid  













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